ARCHITECTURAL SKETCHING AND RENDERING PDF
Keywords: Design, Context, Sketching, Human Factors. Links: DL · PDF · WEB · V IDEO . non-photorealistic rendering (NPR) style strokes in 3D. Just like. ARCHITECTURE COMPOSITION AND DRAWING TECHNIQUES. ARCHITECTURE •SIMPLE RENDERING TECHNIQUES. CAN ENHANCE A. selection from over sketches and drawings from the last ten years. Sketch. Book Architecture with Gwathmy's lifeless, computer generated rendering of.
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Sketches of Wrought Iron Work and Wood Carving in South. Kensington Museum . in the free-hand rendering of architectural subjects. This article, based on. helpful way coith subjects of interest to architects, draftsmen and students a library "Sketching and Rendering in Pencil." by Arthur I. Guprill, is. to be able to sketch it up real quick right in front of the client. Many clients are still wowed by hand drawn drawings. Hand rendering can soften drawings and.
Stephanie Travis has asserted her right under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act of to be identied as the Author of this Work. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording or any information storage and retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher. Drawing is truly a tool for The consistent thread seeing. To draw an object, throughout this book are interior, or building, you my freehand sketches, have to look at the subject shown as a series of in a new way.
If the sun or articial light source hits the right side of the object, a shadow will occur on the left side of the object on the ground surface. Draw the object and shadow as it appears. Without an actual light source, it is difficult to predict the shape of the shadows that will be cast, especially with unusual chair forms.
However, with practice you will become more familiar with the way objects cast shadows, especially in the case of simpler forms. Repeat this exercise with light from a different direction, so that you have cast two shadows for each chair. Select another view for each chair and create a drawing that combines all of the exercises discussed.
Shell chair Hans Wegner I Until now, all of the exercises 1. In reality, we view Create thumbnail layouts to nd the many objects at a time, and best arrangement for your group of three chairs. Turn each chair to a these overlapping, complex different, interesting angle and overlap arrangements can lead to them slightly so that they interact with dynamic sketches.
This will each other. An odd number of chairs be most evident as we three or ve works best to create a draw interior spacewhere balanced composition. Draw each group of three chairs, using the thick pen to furniture, lighting, and emphasize the form.
This exercise builds on the previous exercises to create a composition of three chairs, rst with a line drawing and then using the principles of shade and shadow to complete the drawing. Indicate the light source for your composition, and label the chairs 1, 2, or 3 to indicate the light values. Draw the composition and use markers to render the chairs according to the light values. Cast the shadows on the ground plane and render with a dark marker such as 80 percent or 90 percent.
Select an interior space and position yourself facing a wall Sketch the back wall of your view in elevation; label the oor and ceiling planes. This is the wall that will form the framework for your one-point perspective. All horizontal lines are and represented in two- parallel to the horizon line. All vertical lines are parallel technical perspective drawing and perpendicular to the uses a series of steps to draft horizon line. All diagonal lines recede to Identify your sightline on the drawing, space that includes the oor, the VP; these are referred also called the horizon line.
This line is walls, and ceilingallowing to as orthogonal lines. All objects get smaller as If you are drawing the interior from a and other interior elements they recede into the seated view, the sightline is typically within this dened grid. The distance.
All objects along average seated eye level. Depending on what you see; therefore, a grid orthogonal lines become your ceiling height, you can estimate where the 5-foot horizon line would fall. A careful foreshortened meaning If you have a low ceiling height, such as study of your view and an the dimension of these 7 or 8 feet, the sight line will be closer understanding of the principles objects will be shorter to the ceiling than if you are drawing of perspective will be enough than the dimensions of a space with a high ceiling.
The following process will give you a As discussed in the Perspective deeper understanding of the Basics exercise see page 28 , interior architecture and a one-point perspective is the three-dimensional qualities of simplest view in that all of the a space while demonstrating elements on the orthogonal horizon how to sketch a one-point lines recede to one VP.
In perspective view. Locate and indicate your VP on the horizon line. This is determined from the location where you are standing in the space and is considered to be the most remote distance able to be viewed by the eye. For example, if you are standing in the exact center of the room, the VP will be centered on the horizon line within VP the room; if you standing left of the center, it should be drawn as such. Views left or right of center, even just 1 foot from the centerline, are often more realistic, as we dont usually enter or view an interior at the exact center of the room.
You can draw many views of your space by moving the VP along the horizon line each time you sketch, creating different points of view. Draw four dashed lines, each starting at your VP and extending to the four corners of your wall. Extend the lines from each corner to create your oor, side walls, and ceiling in three dimensionsas they protrude toward the viewer you. Draw the oor, side walls, and ceiling without guidelines; you have now constructed a three-dimensional view of your space.
Indicate the VP, as you VP will use this point to construct the interior space. Within this framework, draw the details of the interior architecturereferred to as non-moving elements. All of the elements that fall along the diagonal lines, referred to as orthogonal lines, will recede back to the VP.
Using dashed VP guidelines to represent the orthogonal lines that radiate out from your VP is helpful in drawing these elements with accuracy. Keep in mind that all horizontal lines are parallel to the horizon line, and all vertical lines are perpendicular to the horizon line. Using the same perspective principles, draw the decorative elements in your space, such as furniture, lighting, artwork, rugs, etc.
The use of dashed guidelines that radiate out from your VP will ensure that all of your elements on the diagonal VP recede back to this point. Draw the interior in its entirety, without guidelines, including all architectural and decorative elements.
The main difference between The ve principles of 1. Select a view looking into a corner Draw your horizon line at 5 feet above perspective as the name Sketch the corner line where the two your oor line. The only horizontal line walls meet, and locate your oor and ceiling planes. This is the horizon line. All vertical lines are Perspective Basics exercise parallel and perpendicular see page 28 , but will now to the horizon line.
All diagonal lines recede and applied to interior space. The oor, wall, the distance. All objects along the corner will recede to VP1, and orthogonal lines become the oor, wall, and ceiling on foreshortened. As you practise drawing two-point Use dashed lines to extend the oor and Draw the framework for your space ceiling lines from where the corner meets indicating the locations of the VPs. This recede toward VP1 and which is a freehand drawing, not a technical elements recede toward VP2.
Therefore, you can tweak the angles of your oor and ceiling so that your VPs fall on the horizon line, or modify any elements of your sketch so that it works for your drawing. Use your VPs to radiate dashed Draw the interior architecture without orthogonal lines that will serve as guides the guidelines.
Use your VPs and orthogonal lines to Draw your two-point perspective Glass House draw the decorative elements within view in totality, with architectural Philip Johnson I New Canaan, Connecticut, your space.
USA I Select a space viewed from a one-point perspective horizon VP. Use dashes for the signicant moving oor architectural elements within your view. Now that you have completed In the example there is a moving oor, the one- and two-point which can be raised and lowered to align perspective exercises, this with the xed oors of the house. This one will continue to build element is indicated with a dashed line. Studying the triangular shapes that radiate out from a VP will give you an understanding of how 3.
It emphasizes Study your view closely, focusing on and sketching the triangular shapes that the principles that objects protrude toward the viewer from the VP. Applying these concepts within an abstract framework reinforces the ideas behind the representation of three- dimensional interiors.
Render the triangles with your markers using darker values to represent the triangular shapes that protrude closer toward the viewer and lighter values for the triangular shapes that are farther from the viewer. Complete your drawing, incorporating architectural and decorative detail.
In this example the addition of stairs, books, and modern artwork creates a narrative that gives the space context and depth. Select a space viewed from a two-point Use dashes for the signicant interior perspective Follow the steps from the architectural elements within your Two-Point Perspective exercise see framework.
In this example structural page 54 to create a framework of your columns and a large display unit dene two-point perspective view. Draw the back the interior space. Since there are two VPs, there will be two groups of Sketch the triangular shapes that Render the triangles with your markers protrude from VP1. This will help you to understand which objects recede to which VP. Sketch the triangular shapes that Render the triangles, again using darker protrude from VP2. Sketch both sets of triangular shapes Render the shapes so that the triangular Render the shapes so that the triangular those that radiate from VP1 and those shapes coming from VP1 are dark shapes coming from VP1 are light that radiate from VP2.
VP2 are dark 80 percent. Sketch the basic interior elements that Complete your drawing, adding you dened with the triangular shapes. This example includes architectural elements such as lighting, and decorative elements such as clothing rails and mannequins, to show the function of a retail store.
This exercise studies 1. Although the viewer. In this example the upper level of the building protrudes over a public walkway to create a modernist porch; oval glass cutouts in the ground give views to a display below the walkway. The following series of diagrammatical studies help to dene this transitional space.
Use dashes for the transitional space, Complete a sketch that is the inverse of Create a drawing of the transitional while using a solid line to draw the formal the previous step: Abstract the space with a solid line and dash in the pen, and add detail of signicant architectural elements of the interior and elements of the formal interior.
Use your elements in this example, the wide render them with your markers elements markers to render the transitional spaces. Use farther from the viewer lighter. Draw the transitional space and the interior in detail. Here a one-point perspective is used. In this example a counter on the right continues from the interior through a glass wall into the exterior, blurring the boundary between interior and exterior. This exercise explores the contrast between being in an interior space looking out 2.
When the exterior. Since objects closer to the viewer are darker, while objects lighten inside a space, the interior as the distance increases, render your elements are dominant; elements from dark to light as they however, incorporating an recede to the exterior. Differentiating between interior and exterior space is another way to understand the layering of perspective and continues to build 3. Draw the space in more detail, adding architectural and decorative elements, as well as the view through the glass to the exterior.
Repeat steps 1 and 2, but this time switch the view so that you are looking from the exterior into the interior. In this example the counter is now seen on the left as it continues from the exterior through the glass into the interior. Use the darkest values to render elements closer to the viewer and lighter values for those elements farther from the viewer. Draw in detail both the exterior space and the interior space as seen through the glass.
Use your thick pen to abstract the gridded system. In this example the buildings quilted glass exterior has diamond-shaped windows set into a diagonal grid.
This one focuses 3. Use arrows a simple window or a to indicate the direction from which you complex wall of glass, are approaching the window e. Emphasizing the three- dimensional aspect of the window adds another layer to an interior view that looks out onto an exterior.
Select one of the viewing angles and use this to represent your interior and the depth that results from the wall thickness. Render the thickness with your marker. Using your thin pen so as not to overshadow your interior , draw the exterior context, such as buildings and vegetation, as viewed through the window.
Part 1: Select a view of a single repeating element Use dashed guidelines to block out your objects as they recede toward the VP.
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In this example four guidelines recede to the VP, each outlining the same part of the bar stools set in a row top of back, bottom of back, seat height, and where the back legs meet the oor. Since objects decrease in size as they recede to the VP, the spacing between your guidelines should gradually decrease the closer they get to the VP.
Draw one part of your object on the centerlines in this case, the oval backs of the bar stools are seen decreasing in size as they move away from the viewer.
When drawing a group of repetitive objects, it is effective to set up perspective guidelines and 2. Instead Sketch the abstracted forms of your objects, as seen decreasing in scale of laying out the interior the closer they get to the VP. Normally, you would start large the interior and then add the smaller elements the furniture , but complex decorative groupings can also be explored initially as a 3.
Part 1 explores a single repeating element; Part 2 moves on to examine a group of repeating elements. Part 2: Select a view of a group of Render this group of objects.
In this example the furniture is one element of the group, and the carpet and wall decoration make up another element. They are studied and sketched separately and then drawn together in the nal sketch, which also incorporates the interior architecture. Again, use dashed guidelines to block out your objects as they recede toward the VP. Here, guidelines are used to dene the tops of the banquettes, the tables, and where the back legs of the chairs meet the oor; vertical centerlines indicate the locations of the tables.
Sketch the abstracted forms of your Draw the two sub-groups of furniture objects and use your markers to dene together and add the interior the shapes that occur. Select an interior The idea is to study your interior carefully and practice drawing with a smooth, uid consistent line.
This example was completed with two lines. Move your pen slowly, taking in the interior elements and drawing over existing lines if necessary. In keeping with the principle that the process of sketching matters more than what the nal sketch looks like, this exercise underlines the importance of intense study of an interior both before and during a sketch.
After studying the interior, decide 2. However, the paper only once or not at all less often your pen comes off the paper, until the entire interior is the more uid your line will appear.
This will help you to practice your line consistency, since constant lifting of the pen off the paper can result in a scratchy line, while a condent, even line enhances the drawing and emphasizes the subject.
Select a second view of the same interior Draw the interior with one pen line. Do not take your pen off the paper until you have completed the sketch. Your line may zigzag through the space in order to keep it on the paper, as in this example where diagonal lines connect the free-oating strip lights. Select a sculptural staircase Look closely at your stair and create a loose outline of the room to anchor it.
Place your pen at the edge of your outline, and begin to sketch the stair without looking at the paper. Repeat this two more times. This exercise emphasizes 2.
Use the perspective tools ceiling. It involves making you have learned. This reinforces the study of the subject, with less emphasis on the sketch itself. Not surprisingly, many sketches done without looking at the paper have a loose, carefree quality that is ideal when sketching sculptural elements.
Select a sculptural ceiling Draw an outline of where the ceiling meets the wall. Place your pen at the edge of your outline, and begin to sketch the ceiling while not looking at your paper.
In this example a tangled web of lines is actually a complex grid of glass panes that connects the buildings along the perimeter and inside of an interior courtyard.
Practice drawing a variety of human gures. These can be outlines of people doing different activitieswalking, standing, or sitting. Figures drawn with little detail, as seen in the example left, provide the needed scale but do not distract from the interior or architecture of the space.
There are many stylistic approaches, from abstract to realistic. The best way to show scale in a sketch of an interior or exterior view is to add a human gure or gures. Without doing so, it is difficult for the viewer to discern the size of the architectural elements.
Including human gures also shows how people interact with the space e. It indicates how the space is actually usedcreating a lively and energetic sketch.
In perspective sketches the eye level of all average adult gures on the same ground plane will align. People who are closer to the viewer are larger, and people who are farther away are smaller, but their eye level remains the same.
Use your thick pen to draw a dashed horizontal line indicating the eye level, then draw gures at different proximities to the viewer.
Select an interior that includes people Draw your interior using the tools discussed previously in this chapter guidelines, perspectives, etc. In this example a multi-height atrium space consists of overlapping levels and bridges, and people are seen at many different heights. In a view with one level, there will be one eye level, and all the gures eyes will line up along the imaginary guideline. If a view has more than one level, as in this example, there will be a corresponding number of imaginary guidelines.
On the rst level, the eye level of all the gures is at the same height, although the gures themselves are larger closer and smaller farther away. On the second level, people are seen standing against the handrail and share the same eye level. Select an interior with three interesting views Sketch the element in your space that recedes into the background. In this example a low wall spirals up and around through the space.
Repeat this exercise for two other views in the space. Three-dimensional objects and spaces can comprise complex layers; some elements protrude while others recede. This exercise studies an element of a space that moves away from the viewer.
Examining 2. This exercise also emphasizes the principle that objects are darker when closer to the viewer and lighter as they recede into the distance.
Draw the space with detail incorporating the studied element. This example includes details such as artwork and lighting to show the function of the museum. It also incorporates people, which expresses scale and animates the interior. Solomon R. To draw interior spaces well, you need to understand the principles of layering. Complex interiors incorporate layers that progress from 5 foreground to background 2 4 front to back.
This exercise 5 2 studies these layers and uses 4 5 varied intensities of gray to 2 communicate depth. This 4 5 may be necessary when a 2 line drawing reads very at 5 4 4 3 4 5 or is difficult to understand 6 2 because of a lack of 4 information.
Adding gray 5 43 34 5 5 values can help to 1 communicate what elements recede and what elements protrude. This is not a shading exercise; the values do not 1. It is a study to further explore Select an interior with complex layers Draw your interior in greater detail Use markers to render your sketch, using Sketch the interior and use numbers to and include people to show scale. As the numbers increase, the gray the distance. After completing farther away from the viewer, beginning value will decrease.
While it was difficult the exercise, you can judge with 1 for the closest. In this example to perceive depth in the line drawing, which rendered sketch the layers low wall, ceiling, and back this rendered version reveals the wall make a line drawing difficult three-dimensionality of the space indicates depth most to understand. Repeat the previous step, but this time render your sketch using the lighter gray for the closest element 1.
As the numbers increase, the gray value will increase. Select an interior Create a thumbnail layout of your view. Add a box around 3 the view, and label it as 1.
Draw a second, smaller box using a large-dashed line around an architectural element you wish to magnify, and label this as 2. Finally, draw a third, even smaller box, using a short-dashed line around an aspect of this element that requires closer scrutiny. An overall sketch does not always clearly convey the detail or uniqueness of a space.
This exercise uses magnication to move the viewer closer into a space 2. First you will sketch an interior space, Draw the interior view in box 1. This line Add more detail to your drawing. Draw the architectural element in box 2. Add more detail to your drawing. Draw the detail of the architectural Add more detail to your drawing. Select a simple interior space that receives sunlight Study your interior space and create a line drawing using the principles you have learned.
In this example there is a slit of light where the back wall meets the ceilingcreating very strong shadows that are cast off a structural beam. Assign values for the shading, gray.
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Although the scale of an 3 3 starting at 1 for the lightest value and interior space is much larger 5 rising to 5 for the darkest value. It is more difficult to alter natural light although possible with window treatments than it is using the articial light of a lamp, 4 4 1 which can be easily adjusted to get an interesting shadow. This example uses natural light. Render each sketch to represent the interior light patterns and shadows that occur throughout the day.
For simplicity, restrict the lighting values to a maximum of ve, and do not render the areas with value 1 i. Then use 20 percent for value 2, 40 percent for value 3, 60 percent for value 4, and 80 percent for value 5. Avoid using percentpure black dominates the sketch and detracts from the shadowy quality of the gray values.
Select a complex interior space that receives sunlight Block out the architectural elements of your space and 4 create a map of shadow intensities by numbering areas from 1 lightest to 5 darkest. Restrict your values to a maximum of ve, no matter how complex 5 3 5 1 your view, so you can create contrast with your markers remember you have 5 2 5 only ve gray values if you start at 2 2 4 3 10 percent and use odd percentages 3 4 for more contrast, e.
Create a line drawing of the interior architecture. In this example the joints in the concrete walls and ceiling create a grid, which helps to frame the space. Add furniture and lighting to the space. Use your markers to block out the Use your knowledge of perspective to shading in your space according to your locate your horizon line and VP so that diagram. For ultimate contrast, and to all the architectural elements and emphasize the brightness of the lightest furniture recede to a common point.
Just leave the white of the paper. Use 20 percent for value 2, 30 percent for value 3, 40 percent for value 4, and 50 percent for value 5.
Add another layer of gray to your drawing. Use 20 percent for value 2, 40 percent for value 3, 60 percent for value 4, and 80 percent for value 5. If you really want your dark to pop, use 90 percent for value 5.
More contrast will create a more dynamic and dramatic interior sketch. After completing the two versions of this view, you can decide if you prefer a more diluted or contrasted rendering for your space. Select a symmetrical building Use dashes to draw the centerline and block out the basic elements of one side of your building. Use a dimension line to mark the spacing on either side of the centerline as equal.
With a dashed line, mirror the building on the opposite side of the centerline. Symmetry in buildings is more difficult to draw than it appears. It is a challenge to mirror the proportions and details of one side of a building. This exercise uses a centerline as a guide to draw a symmetrical building. Then, it explores what happens 2.
You will mirror these elements patterns which make you look on the opposite side of your centerline in at the building in a new way. The building in this example has a simple outline but incorporates many striking patterns within its symmetry. Sketch your building again, this time Add the basic architectural elements that without the detail, and draw a horizontal you sketched on one side of your building.
Using the approach described in the Mirror Image exercise see page 22 , mirror your entire building below the guideline. Set up a vertical guideline at one end of Render the buildings to emphasize your building pair and a horizontal verticality by using darker values for the guideline at the bottom edge of your vertical elements.
Mirror the pair vertically and then horizontally so that you have a sketch of eight buildings. Render the buildings to emphasize horizontality by using darker values for the horizontal elements.
Mirror your cluster of eight buildings vertically and then horizontally to create a basic outline of 32 buildings that form a pattern. Use guidelines if necessary. To explore this further, you can render this sketch using different values with your markers to emphasize certain elements or continue to mirror your group of buildings vertically and horizontally to create an even larger pattern.
Block out your building, indicating the centerline, and sketch one side, adding more architectural detail. Draw both sides, looking closely at your building and your sketch. Although the building itself is symmetrical, it is likely that the surrounding features will not be. The bridge and the trees add context and asymmetry to the sketch, providing a more realistic view of urban life than the symmetrical building in isolation for more on landscape see the Vegetation exercise, page Select a building composed of individual pieces Abstract the building you have chosen into simple shapes.
Give each shape a number according to its proximity to the viewerstarting at 1 for the closest 3 and rising to 5 for the farthest. This exercise uses abstraction to study the sculptural qualities of a building. We examined abstraction in 2. Applying this concept to the study of buildings is benecial, especially with complex or irregular forms. In this example a modern addition right contrasts with the symmetry of the original building left accentuated by the additions many angular, irregular forms, making it ideal to pull apart and 3.
Examining elements Draw the pieces as individual shapes. Draw the shapes as puzzle pieces; mix them up to create an abstract drawing. This is a fun way to explore the shapes and look at them in a new way. Draw your building with architectural detail. In this example the newer addition is attached to and appears to have crashed into the older building, so it is important to add details to both buildings even if the focus is on the modern addition.
Select a building with an interesting form With your thick pen, draw a line around the perimeter of your object. Focus on the outside edge of the form to create an outline of the overall exterior shape.
This exercise focuses on the space around a building. As stated in previous exercises, 2. The focus on the around your building. In this example the many angles of the building provide a unique study of negative space and are used to further explore these ideas.
With the thin tip of your black marker, use a loose squiggle to render the space around your building. Draw an invisible box around your building, and sketch the shapes that occur between your building and the box. Use the thick end of one of your gray markers to create a loose, sketchy rendering that represents the void around your building. Sketch the building in its entirety, focusing on the negative space to draw the architectural forms.
Select a building with a sense of movement Use your thick pen to create a quick sketch of your building, using your left hand if you are right-handed or your right hand if you are left-handed. The beauty of this exercise is the focus on the building; there are no expectations for the nal result.
A building can be expressed in many ways; your interpretation is unique. Depending on the building 2. This exercise explores the notion of studying a building and bringing out the energy of the architecture.
After you complete the exercisequick sketches to slower drawings, loose strokes to tighter lines, and less detail to highly detailed elementsask yourself which sketch best expresses your interpretation of the building and captures the feeling of the architecture.
Use the thick tip of your black marker again to quickly outline the building forms in broad strokes. Create another sketch with the thick tip Use the thin tip of your black marker to With your thick pen, draw the building of your marker, spending more time on create a loose sketch that gives more with more detail.
Using your medium pen, spend the time you need to create a nal sketch that denes and details all aspects of the architecture. Rendering the materials of a building adds another level of information to an architectural sketch. This exercise provides initial practice representing common materials used in the exterior of buildings, such as wood, stone, and concrete. These materials are then applied in context, to a multi-gabled house.
Draw 12 squares or the outline of a The renderings in this example represent: Render each shape with a different building material. Alternate between your medium and thin pens, exploring how the center clapboard wood; concrete; different pens change the representation wood, metal, or vinyl; wood strips of of the material.
Materials rendered with varied length a thin pen are more subtle and do not distract from the form of the building, but there may be instances when bottom brick; stucco; corrugated you want the material to read more aluminum; uneven stone dominantly, in which case you would use a medium or thick pen. Select a building Draw the outermost layer of the building you select. In this expressed rst. By understanding the different components 2. The them as unique architectural abstract arrangement of the multi-size windows is shown.
Create a sketch of the next layerin this example, the horizontal siding that covers the building. After your layers are peeled away, you will be left with the basic form of your building.
Draw this form. Now that you have a deeper understanding of the layers of your building, draw your building in its entirety. If you are working in ink and will not be able to erase , begin with the layer that is closest to you and sketch the layers in the order that they recede. Select a tall building Create a diagram Use the thick side of your marker to Block out and sketch a basic drawing of indicating the ground, oors, and rooine emphasize every other oor level.
We explored the physical 1 ground layers of the Y House, but layers also occur in large-scale buildings. This exercise looks at horizontal layering that occursmost often in tall buildings.
When drawing a building of this type, it is important to examine the oor levels and gain an understanding of the overall structural grid of the architecture. In this example two story towers located side by side share the same architectural language. Draw your building in parts, emphasizing Draw the parts together as a whole, Add the vertical elements of the building, the three basic elements of a tall building showing the oor levels to create a such as the glass curtain-wall structure.
Draw your building within its surrounding context. Through the towers, one can glimpse the Empire State Building, as well as a variety of other buildings and rooftops. Although drawn with less detail than the towers, these contextual buildings and trees emphasize the layered complexity of the city. Using markers, render an element of your building that you want to emphasize. In this example the glass is rendered with a 70 per cent gray value to contrast against the white balconies.
This makes the buildings stand out from the urban background and provides greater denition. This is VP1 nowhere more evident than in architecture, where the larger scale allows you to understand this principle in a more profound way.
If you view a building while walking from one end of a street to the other end, you will slowly see the perspective change and the VPs shift from the side of the building to behind the building, and to the other side. This exercise examines these subtle changes and VP VP records three points along your path.
In this example the abstracted block forms of the architecture create interesting 1. Indicate your VPs, and dash the lines that radiate out from the VPs to your building and surrounding buildings if applicable. Sketch the basic forms of your building using your thick pen.
Repeat with two other points along your path. Select one of your views to render with markers, showing the elements closer to the ground and the viewer darker, and the elements as they recede from the viewer lighter.
While many of the interior perspectives we have created recede into the distance horizontally, tall urban buildings recede into the distance vertically. Depending on the location of the viewer and height of the building, some buildings will also recede toward a VP above the building; this is the third point in a three-point perspective, which we will explore in the Multi-point Perspective exercise see page Here we will just use the gray values to produce the faded or ombr effect of a tall building receding up toward the sky.
Complete a nal sketch for each view along your path. Select a building with curved elevation s With your thick pen, draw your buildings from a two-point perspective looking at the corner.
At this stage treat the buildings as if they were rectilinear. Indicate and note your VPs with dashed lines that extend from the solid lines of your building outlines. Sketching a building with curved elements requires the same basic approach you would use for a rectilinear building, but with a few additional tools. These structures evoke movement and uidity, and your sketch should reect that.
This exercise builds upon the perspective methodology that we have previously studied. The two buildings chosen for this example highlight different aspects of portraying architectural curves.
Study the forms of your buildings and draw the curved lines on the elevations in dashes with your medium pen. The building on the left has one curved elevation that curves within the drawn outline and one rectilinear elevation.
The house on the right is in the form of a crescent. Therefore, looking at the house from the corner one can see the outer, convex curve extending outside of the outline on the left of the corner, while the inner, concave curve on the right of the corner remains inside the outline.
Draw the outline of your buildings without guidelines. Continue to practice as necessary to achieve a curve with a smooth, consistent line. Draw your buildings with architectural and exterior detailing, including sidewalk paving, exterior steps, and vegetation. For most of this book, the focus has been on understanding and mastering 1. Select a tall building Sketch your perspective views in sketches.
Show your dashed lines and indicate the location occur when you are looking of the VPs. However, there are many buildings that incorporate 1. Two of the VPs are located more than two VPs. This on the horizon line. The third VP is located with complex rooines, above the horizon line or more modern buildings if you are looking up or that incorporate uncommon below the horizon line forms. This exercise will if you are looking down.
All lines recede to a VP perspective drawings, looking there are no horizontal up or down at a building, or vertical lines. All objects get smaller buildings that have four or as they recede into the more VPs when viewed from distance. All objects will become foreshortened, since all The ve principles of objects are located on three-point perspective: Sketch the building quickly with a thick pen, adding more architectural detail.
VP1 VP2 Sketch the building from a three-point perspective, looking down at the building.
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In reality, you may not be able to view your building from above, but you can use the skills learned to imagine the view from this angle. Show your dashed lines and indicate the location of the VPs. Select a building with multiple VPs Outline and extend the basic forms of your building to their respective VPs. Label the elements and the VPs as 1, 2, 3, etc.
This building takes the basic house form but uses it in a novel way, which creates a separate VP for each 2 element of the house. Browse more videos. Playing next 2: Architectural Rendering Tutorial - Photoshop and Sketchup. Photoshop Tutorials. Architectural Rendering in Adobe Illustrator.
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