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This page is intentionally left blank JOEL, OBADIAH, MALACHITHE NIVAPPLICATIONCOMMENTARY From biblical text. View eBook Psalms, Volume 2 (The Niv Application Commentary) By Jamie A. Grant W. Dennis Tucker Jr [EPUB KINDLE PDF. EBOOK]. Niv Application Commentary - [Free] Niv Application Commentary [PDF] [EPUB] Most Bible commentaries take us on a one-way trip from our.

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The NIV Application Commentary has 50 entries in the series. His insights are lived-through, profound and rich of application. Make your choice below and download the PDF Commentary eBook for free. to view the material on the web pages and save that material only. Download Galatians (The NIV Application Commentary) book pdf | audio id: ipvqzt2 Likes: Types: ebook | djvu | pdf | mp3 score: /10 - (22 votes).

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Its holiness is especially emphasized. This particular state is highlighted in other passages e. It will not only be the place of his presence but also of his sovereign rule e.

The prophecy thus shows a panoply of events related to Zion. As the residence of God in his temple, it is holy and therefore not welcoming of those who do not follow God. Those who turn to him, however, are welcome and provided rest and refreshment. It is the source of warning calls for those in opposition, but also a summons for those seeking succor. In a manner similar to that surrounding the Day of the Lord, Zion has two facets: Stephen Langton undertook the earliest division into chapters, using the Vulgate, in the early thirteenth century A.

His division, used in the English Bible and this commentary, has three chapters, consisting of 1: From the sixteenth century, Jewish tradition divides the book into four sections 1: Heading, and Warnings to Judah 1: Heading 1: Warnings to Judah 1: Lament 1: Invasion of a Locust Army 2: Turn Back to Me!

Yahweh Responds 2: People, Rejoice! The Valley of Decision 3[4]: In That Day 3[4]: Barton, Joel, 5. Joel and the Temple Cult of Jerusalem. VTSup Brill, A study of the setting and content of the book.

Barton, J. Joel and Obadiah: A Commentary. Westminster John Knox Press, A useful mainline look at historical and linguistic backgrounds. Joel is pages xiii—xviii, 1— Bergler, Siegfried. Joel als Schriftinterpret. An important study of word and sound play, vocabulary, and inner biblical exegesis.

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Bliese, L. An analysis of the poetics of the prophecy. Borowski, Oded. Agriculture in Iron Age Israel. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, A useful illustrated study especially relevant for this prophecy. Crenshaw, J. New York: Doubleday, An important work of contemporary, mainline biblical scholarship. Finley, Thomas J. Moody Press, Useful in-depth analysis of Hebrew text.

Mostly accessible to those without Hebrew. Hubbard, D. An Introduction and Commentary. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, Keller, C. CAT 11a. A French commentary especially helpful in its literary analysis.

Limburg, J. John Knox, A brief commentary seeking to find application for the church. Prinsloo, Willem S. The Theology of the Book of Joel. BZAW An analysis of structure and inner-biblical exegesis as well as theology. Prior, David. Pages 17— While not a complete commentary per se, the volume provides useful exegetical and practical insights. Redditt, Paul L. Thematic Threads in the Book of the Twelve.

BZAW ; Berlin: A helpful collection of essays on the Minor Prophets as a whole, with several aiding the interpretation of Joel. Lewiston, N. Mellen, A detailed, often technical study especially useful in its discussion of nature and the Day of the Lord. Stuart, Douglas. Waco, Tex.: Word, A useful commentary by a leading evangelical exegete.

Wolff, H. Fortress, A leading German scholar who provides a detailed exegesis of the book, which he holds is a literary unity. Has anything like this ever happened in your days or in the days of your forefathers? Wail, all you drinkers of wine; wail because of the new wine, for it has been snatched from your lips. It has stripped off their bark and thrown it away, leaving their branches white. The priests are in mourning, those who minister before the LORD.

Surely the joy of mankind is withered away. Come, spend the night in sackcloth, you who minister before my God; for the grain offerings and drink offerings are withheld from the house of your God. The storehouses are in ruins, the granaries have been broken down, for the grain has dried up.

The herds mill about because they have no pasture; even the flocks of sheep are suffering. Sometimes information such as date cf. Hosea, Amos or place Ezekiel is provided. In Joel this background information is meager: The all-important source of his message, God himself, is identified.

Original Meaning Heading 1: It also heads Ezra Ezra 1: Therefore, the term should not be understood as indicating strictly literary genre. Rather, it indicates that the source of its contents is divine, deriving its authority from God rather than from either a king or another human being. Technical studies refer to the name as the Tetragrammaton, that is, the four-letter word par excellence. In other words, Israel is addressed by their God, with whom they are on a first-name basis, rather than by one who holds himself aloof because of his superior position.

Yahweh plays the key role in the book, his name occurring more than any other word thirty-three times. He is also the Author of the book, or at least the one inspiring its message. He is unknown apart from this reference.

The textual evidence for the switch is not compelling. Other times they explicitly addressed the nation as a whole e. This derives from a horrible plague, not of disease e. This section is set off from that 1: This could mean those who traditionally held positions 1. Prinsloo, Theology of Joel, They existed from the national captivity in Egypt Ex. One of their functions was judicial, making legal decisions on a local level for the people based on biblical law and practice e.

They represented the upper end of the societal spectrum. Scholars suggest that such a technical use of the term must be postexilic cf. The term can also be literal, calling to the old folks.

This is also supported by the juxtaposition with the young in 2: The elderly are respected not only as those preserving the tribal memory of such catastrophes as will soon be described, but also the wisdom about how to meet the challenges. Both interpretations are problematic, however, when seen in light of the parallelism in the second line of verse 2. Both elderly and leaders are summoned to hear the dreadful news as part of all of the others who are affected.

The audience is commanded to pay attention. The two verbs used are synonymous, with the semantic duplication highlighting the seriousness of the following message. In fact, it is to become a precedent for future instruction Joel 1: The message starts with rhetorical questions cf. This word also engages the attention, awaiting some indication about what is being talked about.

The second question makes the interrogative-plus-verb combination of the first part do double duty and raises the question up a notch: This is our equivalent of saying that something has not happened since time immemorial, since this rhetorical question is most naturally answered in the negative.

One other event was unparalleled in previous generations: Both Exodus and Joel direct attention to past generations. In Joel the subject also is soon revealed as a locust swarm, though the rhetorical tension caused by the lack of indication of the nature of the unparalleled event has not yet been revealed here, so the tension continues to mount through this and the next verse. InterVarsity Press, , 22— The use of the disjunctive coordinator we,im between the two phrases F.

Wolff Joel, 17 suggests that the specific disjunctive interrogative form used here ha —. It is found in earlier documents as well, however e. Brill, ], 3. This verb is implied in the next two lines cf. Joel 1: Verse 3 moves from two generations past self and ancestors , who have not seen such a thing, to four generations yet to come self, children, their children, and future generations , who are to be told of it.

Other generations extending far into the future are significant in Joel, opening and closing the book 3: Joel says that it is not enough for his generation alone to learn about this event. It is a matter to teach to all who follow, like other mighty acts of God e.

In each of the three clauses it has the same emphatic Hebrew structure: In Exodus Joel 2: This turns out also to be the context in our verse, but a first reading leaves another option open, since the word has another possible connotation. In several cases the same word is an adverb indicating excess or abundance cf. It is only as the reader goes further into the clause that it is possible to ascertain that the state of affairs is not good.

Each clause designates a locust type that eats what is left by the other locust type in the clause. The three clauses yield four separate locust types cf. Lack of clarity is evident from the various other English translations proposed for the words: The second term ,arbeh , the most common word for locusts, occurs twenty-four times in the Old Testament.

Exodus The account claims to describe the ultimate of such plagues: The main uses of the words are in contexts stressing their overwhelming numbers and greedy devouring, with several recalling the locust plagues in Egypt Ps. Some of the translations reflect a means of crop destruction, some a means of locomotion, and yet others a stage of development. See BDB. Macmillan, , Cornell Univ. The context supports the latter interpretation, since the surprising uniqueness of the event is not due to an unparalleled number of varieties present but their overpowering number.

Amos 7: Sound the alarm 1: Different people are addressed in this section, but its literary structure unites it internally. Each of the two subsections has two parts: The order of these alternates throughout in this manner: A Prescription: It is significant that the central, pivot point of the chiasm is verses 9—10, the effect of the catastrophe on the Judean ritual practices, an element of life that is so central for the life of the people.

Various elements of society are prepared to address how the catastrophe impacts them. To drunkards 1: Such folks are also viewed negatively in Hebrew society, since it is inappropriate behavior for those attending a divine sanctuary 1 Sam.

At other times, the connotation of the word is not as bleak, since the state can be a result of a good party e. Crenshaw points out that in that culture, wine was a common See Crenshaw, Joel, 91—94; Barton, Joel, 43— The second and third verbs describe lamenting, a natural response to a catastrophe. The first bkh regularly indicates weeping 2: The other yll; 1: The imbibers must lament for the wine that is newly pressed at this time of devastation cf.

Amos 9: It is not yet bottled but still flows Joel 3: As cleanly as a woodcutter severs a tree from its roots 1 Kings 5: In verse 6, a military metaphor expands on the impact of the locust swarms, anticipating an actualization of the metaphor in later verses. The insects are like a national army cf. In one other case apart from Joel, it is used in conjunction with animals Zeph.

In both cases, the speaker, most likely God cf. Piling up the numerous verbs emphasizes the totality of destruction. First is an unidentified female. The main terms are clear, but their combination is problematic. This course, black fabric Isa.

The latter term is ambiguous since it can indicate a young, unmarried state, perhaps even prior to betrothal e. This is difficult in this context since she does have a husband. This fits the context, but there is still the difficulty Wolff, Joel, In Akkadian, saqqu is also listed among items of fine clothing, such as those included in a dowry CAD, 15, —69 , so it does not, at least in that context, have the negative connotation that English has derived from Hebrew.

Agricultural loss affects other elements in society as well, some in ways that might not readily come to mind 1: Priests suffer partly because of the loss of regular daily foodstuffs, so that they are in that respect at one with the rest of society.

It also affects their livelihood since it is the loss of some of their stock in trade. Two specific types of sacrifice required plant products that are now lost to the locusts. The first offering 1: This offering required olive oil and flour, part of which was burnt on the altar. Since both oil Joel 1: This loss directly impacts the priestly larder, since it comprises some of their food supply Lev.

The second plant-based offering is the less fully detailed drink offering 1: Just as wine is cut off from the mouths of those who would drink it Joel 1: The priests mourn this loss like one mourns the death of a loved one e.

They are ministers Joel 1: This word can indicate an assistant to a leader e. In the It will be discussed below. Their very role is in jeopardy. There are serious theological and sociological ramifications if the sacrificial system, the regular means of approaching God, is not able to function as it was established to do.

The people must be reminded from whom these sacrifices actually derive, Yahweh himself Joel 2: In verse 10, the grounds for the deprivation and mourning are established: Three staples of life—grain, wine, and oil—fail from earth and field. The assault on life is accentuated at many levels through literary means that are lost in translation: Devastation comes to the cultivated field vv. The author plays on two uses of the second verb ,bl.

Playing off of Joel 1: The writer could be engaging in a wordplay looking both back to the previous verse and forward to the concluding verbs here. Along with grain, the new wine and oil are lost. These three terms regularly occur together in the Old Testament e.

The firstfruits of all three are for personal use by the priests Num. These divine gifts Deut. The crop loss also devastates the agriculturalists responsible for production v. The litany of destruction shows literary craftsmanship through the Hebrew sounds.

Those that would have struck the ear are underlined in the transcription that follows, where each strophe is separated: Amos 5: The two verbs used here were encountered previously ybs h, yll; 1: Wine itself dries up 1: A homonym of the same root carries a meaning of shame e. The two verbs are morphologically ambiguous, equally able to be masculine plural imperatives so most translations or third common plural perfect forms cf. The existence of so many imperatives in this section Joel 1: Barley also is relegated to use as horse feed 1 Kings 5: Other, perennial crops are listed in verse 12, with numerous links to previous verses.

Song 7: DCH, 4: This verb is used of farm laborers in Jer. Marti, Dodekapropheton, ; DCH, 4: The harvesting seasons for barley cf. Ruth 2: The relative harvesting dates are also evident in Ex. A concluding analogy is made with the emotional state of the people. All humanity, those previously identified and more, suffer the desiccation of joy, the normal emotional response to a good harvest Isa.

There is another clever play on sounds and words between this and the immediately preceding clause. They are first to gird themselves like the bereft virgin 1: This time the sackcloth is to be worn overnight. Eisenbrauns, , —17, —30; cf. Solway, The last five words of the preceding clause and the first three of this are: Like the mourning for a departed loved one, which takes a season to go through, the loss of sacrificial material does not right itself immediately; at least a new harvest season must pass.

This is usually clear from the context e. While it may be reading too much into the verb, there could be in it an indication that the priests are not actually where they are supposed to be and have to be recalled to their God in whose house they should already be serving cf. Finally, they are again reminded of the reason for mourning. As conception is withheld from a barren womb with resultant grief Gen.

In verse 14, further steps are demanded in order to restore what is lost. This is done through four more imperative verbs, apparently also directed toward the priests. Fasting 1 Sam.

The speaker calls 1: The priests are not to be alone in these endeavors, however, since elders 1: He is the key for this verse, his ministers being called to cry to him because of the deprivation of his house. The previously dominant litany of imperatives also stops. This is a cry of distress cf.

Joel, Obadiah, Malachi (NIV Application Commentary, The)

A definite article normally refers back to something previously mentioned or to something well known in the shared universe of speaker and audience. Either fits the present context, though the majority of the thirty examples of this word with the former connotation in this prophecy suggest the former interpretation. Some anticipate the Day as positive Amos 5: They anticipate a day of relief in that finally God will come to help in catastrophe.

Joel quickly corrects their misconception. What they have experienced so far is but a glimmer of what is yet to come; they have seen trouble, but the Day will be worse 2: This juxtaposition of sounds attracts the ear of the hearers, also shocking them when they hear the meaning lying behind the sounds; Yahweh uses his awesome might for destruction instead of salvation!

This interjection is usually followed immediately by the person addressed Judg. Peter Lang, , 78— Previously the threat had been theoretical—it would happen someday; here it is actualized.

Joel shows this by rhetorically inviting his audience to join in the message by answering the rhetorical question see 1: Also, since main elements of Israelite food are the grain, wine, and oil, which, being cut off, result in the impossibility of sacrifice Joel 1: But another possibility fits within this verse as well.

The term also includes liquids, including wine,51 so this may be synonymous with what follows, leading to the second direct object. Whatever interpretation is followed, the people face deprivation of provisions that lighten the heart Ps.

The morphological form of krt is ambiguous—either 3ms Niphal perfect in pause or a Niphal ms participle. In either case, however, the Day would have already arrived. The ripple effect spreads: Humans and animals suffer, as does the cult, which cannot receive vegetable sacrifices, and now also suffers through the loss of the animals necessary for blood sacrifice Ex.

There is no dichotomy in Israel between humanity and nature; all life suffers together. Finally 1: He speaks in his own voice, using first person singular forms, rather than as a member of the people, using the first person plural forms found in the previous section 1: Again the following particle cf.

The destruction now takes a different slant, comparing voracious locusts with all-consuming fire cf. Here it is lit. This may be yet another metaphor for the allconsuming locust swarms, or an indication that all of nature works together at one time against these poor folks, hitting them either simultaneously or sequentially with locust, drought, and fire. The latter is a natural consequence of the death and desiccation caused by the former, leaving tinder-dry remains, vulnerable to the first spark.

The animals of 1: These are most likely not natural streams, for which Hebrew has several other words, but artificial irrigation channels. This reading might be preferred since this verb does occur in the context though the MT root does not have this type of metaphorical extension to animals elsewhere , and it makes better theological sense, especially since no human wrongdoing had been adduced as precipitating the devastation so far in the prophecy.

Prophets in the Old Testament are regularly identified at least by name, though usually extra information is given about them or about the book associated with them.

This information includes such things as: Of greater import, at least regarding the nature of the document as a true prophecy, is the identity of the true Author, the deity who is its divine source. Most people have no understanding of any meaning underlying the names they choose.

The meaning of most Western names has become opaque; that is, it is not readily clear even to native language speakers what the historical background or meaning of a name might be. In a number of languages this is not the case. In them, personal names are transparent, carrying a readily identifiable meaning. This is the case for the Semitic language family, of which Hebrew is a member.

They build their names from regular words in the language. Bridging Contexts 56 Joel 1: A son. It is also the name of the deity at the head of the Canaanite pantheon, El.

For a major portion of her existence, Israel was particularly attracted to the Canaanite religious practices, and Israelite prophets and priests had to be ever vigilant lest syncretistic practices be incorporated into Israel cf.

For them it is not El who is god, but Yahweh is the true El. Literary craftsmanship. There is a difference between setting words on paper and crafting them into art. Both deliver information, but care in craftsmanship can deliver it with greater power and impact.

Numerous biblical writers, including Joel, use word choice and structure with skill. Joel uses sounds to tie together some of his work, though since the sound of words are specific to the original language, they do not readily translate into English. The structural form Joel uses in 1: It can be diagrammed something like an arrow point, with the first and last elements of the piece repeating the same ideas or even the same vocabulary, likewise for the second and next-to-last elements, and so on.

Frequently the middle element, the actual point of the arrow, is the highlighted key point of the passage. An excellent example is the book of Amos, which appears to be entirely structured as a chiasm around the central turning point of 5: United Bible Societies, , While the loss of food is significant for any nation 1: Not only is physical life endangered, but so is a continuing covenant relationship between Israel and her God.

Wine and alcohol. Wine was a common staple in the Israelite diet67 and thus an important part of the agricultural life of the community. In a twomonth period during the summer August—September; Num. They are then taken to the winepress Isa. The grapes are laid in its upper basin and trodden underfoot, squeezing out the juice Job The juice in turn runs down a channel into a lower, holding basin, where the natural fermentation process immediately commences.

Early stage juice is 58 Joel 1: Wine apparently contains alcohol even in its earliest stages, though this increases during the fermentation process.

The must 59 Joel 1: This is shown in the Epic of Gilgamesh, the Babylonian Flood story. There the sacrifices stopped because of the ill—planned actions of one of the gods, whose flood, which was brought to destroy humanity, frightened even the gods themselves.

The continued dependence is shown in Assyrian royal inscriptions, in which Mesopotamian kings listed some of their more important accomplishments. Often included are building temples for various named gods, where they received worship, including offerings. Several inscriptions also mention building beer vats and storage areas, places to prepare and keep the necessities of life for their survival;73 several also mention bringing regular offerings.

Therefore, if the gods should for some reason depart from a city, that was a serious concern indeed. The capture of one city by another is described in royal annals by saying that the gods of city X the defeated left to go to city Y the conqueror , or that they were taken away by force.

He claimed that his ability to take over from the Babylonian rulers was because they neglected their own gods, who turned to Cyrus himself for aid. This is stated as the reason for creating humanity in the Epic of Atrahrasis as well as in the Babylonian creation account Enuma Elish, see COS, 1, , COS, 1, — See, e. Grayson, Assyrian Royal Inscriptions I: From the Beginning to Ashur—resha— ishi I Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, , 7, 9, Otto Harrassowitz, , Augustin, , 79, 86, 88, Marduk [the chief god].

He called out his name: Agriculture and religion. He initially established vegetation Gen. His provision for humanity was special 2: Thus, good or ill could blossom from the same branch. It was in fact a clarion call to return to him, following his covenant, so that blessing could then flow. He declares: Though the fig tree does not bud and there are no grapes on the vines, though the olive crop fails and the fields produce no food, though there are no sheep in the pen and no cattle in the stalls, yet I will rejoice in the LORD, I will be joyful in God my Savior.

They must remember that it is the relationship with their Great King that needs to be carefully preserved. If that is in good order, all the rest falls into line. This understanding of Canaanite religion has recently been questioned see, e. Hermann, DDD, An Introduction Biblical Seminar 70; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, , ; cf. Some parents still choose names today because of their religious associations e. This is no different from using the English names of the days of the week, all of which are etymologically related to either astral bodies or pagan deities.

These may at times carry a message to the initiated, those on the inside who know what they symbolize, but most do not know this or even notice them as anything more than jewelry. While some of the means mentioned might be an indication to the initiated, that is not to be the approach of the Christian. We are not to be isolated from anyone unlike us, but to be a light on the hill for those who have not received their own new identity in Christ.

We need a public self-identification, which is one of the functions of baptism. While that step is important, it is not readily discernable, something that a colleague or classmate sees.

In this context, there is truth in the words sung by the last generation: Many North American churches have developed a view of the appropriateness of alcohol use at variance with that found in the Bible, where it is clearly used without condemnation. This may be so in some cases, but the Contemporary Significance Bustanoby, The Wrath of Grapes: Drinking and the Church Divided Grand Rapids: Baker, What the church should seek is Christian maturity, discipling its members into moderation, not only in alcohol consumption see Sir.

While alcoholism is a real problem, even the daily news reports point out that obesity is much more pervasive and potentially devastating. Consistency in Christian concern for the welfare of others must not stop, therefore, with sobriety but must also include gluttony. In the end, while the church can educate in these areas of excess, it is individual Christians who must monitor their own behavior.

Teachable moments. Formal education is planned with an established curriculum that is previously designed with some goal in mind. This holds for schools whether in the traditional educational system or on Sunday morning. Informal education e. The latter is particularly driven by teachable moments, events encountered during the course of life that provide a natural segue into something that can be learned. An example of the difference between formal and informal education could involve teaching children the facts of life.

Educational systems have sex education curricula in place, and these have often proven lightning rods for controversy for various reasons. One of the reasons for the debate derives from the artificial nature of the process; when is it appropriate to provide certain levels of information? This type of question seems to have arisen in the main since so many people have lost contact with life on the farm or since pets are regularly neutered. While this is not advocating either rural life or the merits of spaying, the actual encounter with child or puppy birth does provide a natural teachable moment on the subject of reproduction.

The locust plague in the time of Joel supplies a teachable moment for God, especially since he has a rapt audience because of the vital nature of the topic. The inability of the people to bring their vegetable sacrifices was a time of national importance of which everyone was aware. God uses it to teach See D.

Tyndale, forthcoming. Much of the power of the teaching derives from its real-life relevance to the questions being asked at that particular moment. Part of the role of the church is to be on the lookout for teachable moments.

My own preferred preaching style is expository, following through a text from beginning to end over a period of time. This allows the entire message of the passage to come to the fore, not just those bits I prefer or am more comfortable with.

Part of this process, however, is to be constantly exegeting the congregation as well as the text. While one may have only been partway through a ten-week series on an epistle, the message preached in North America on September 16, , demanded its focus be on the events that had taken place in New York, Washington, and a Pennsylvania field several days previously.

There must be advance preparation for these moments, however, since often their force and immediacy make it difficult to render a reasoned response directly after the event. This preparation includes the ability to process and address things theologically and with our minds as well as emotionally.

Jesus is an example of this on many occasions, but certainly on the cross. One of his colleagues in crucifixion called on Jesus to use his claimed power to spare himself and them from the real pain and death they faced Luke The natural, visceral response was to do just that, since it was certainly within his power to do so.

His theology did not allow his bodily pain to determine his response, however. The reason for his incarnation was to provide atonement for sin and to show the victory of the Christ over the power of sin and death. Neither of these could happen if he had left the cross. His theology won out over personal expediency. This is a problem for much of the contemporary church, at least in the West.

Our encounters with God are too often based only on personal experience rather than on theological reflection. When we find ourselves facing an experience of pain or grief, our theology is only a veneer, a surface without substance that does not allow us to address the deep questions of the heart. When a child dies, a business fails, or a horror is perpetrated, previous encounters with God with the mind and soul as well as in the heart are needed to provide what is necessary for the teachable moment.

It is these prior reflections that help us to be ready to explain the hope that is within us 1 Peter 3: Since most Westerners are not agriculturalists, our comprehension of the magnitude of crop devastation through swarming locusts is meager.

For many, the only reality of insect swarms has been a mess on the car windshield. This has not always been the case, however, since even in 64 Joel 1: In the latter, there is physical loss, which has subsequent psychological and economic ramifications leading to consequences far beyond the physical zone of destruction.

Like locusts that cut a swath through an entire territory, depriving many families of not only livelihood but also sustenance, so the entire U.

It is events such as these, whether deriving from natural or human causes, that force us to realize that we are not ultimately in control of our own destiny. We can send people to walk on the moon, but a loose piece of shielding can also bring our rocket tumbling to the ground.

We do know through Scripture and through our own prior encounters with the God revealed in Scripture that he exists, that he creates and thus is sovereign, and that he knows and cares about our lives. Our experience needs to be informed by our theology, that the God of life and light suffered through his Son as we do Rom.

He is not just the God of light, however. In going into the darkness, neither Moses nor we are leaving the presence of God, since he is the God who is there as well. While we might not know the Revised edition New York: There seem to be two extremes in popular preaching and writing, with vacillation between the two at different times and locations. While it does no good to provide pious platitudes of hope to those heading for destruction unless they alter their path, it is also unhelpful to present unmitigated woe to those defeated and beaten down.

When do we mix warning with weal? Provider of peace and plenty. The grape and the fig symbolize peace, plenty, and prosperity for Israel Deut. Human nature, however, seems to look mainly to oneself in both of these circumstances. When things go well, when we enjoy provision and plenty, we see them as arising from our own efforts; they are our due.

The unparalleled advances in the financial markets during the s arose from the United States having the most productive economy in history because of our See http: See Prinsloo, Theology of Joel, We produced our own grapes and figs. There was little consideration that sending jobs to places where wages, anti-exploitation, and safety laws are much less rigorous helped fuel these economic gains considerably.

Are we draining needed water from the vines and groves of others, or are we appropriating their few weak shoots to strengthen our many hardy ones? Perhaps God is providing more than we could ask or think to give us an opportunity to support those at home and abroad who are not so blessed, those who need a brother to be their keeper.

Do we notice that our neighbors are short of bread and water, much less sweet wine and succulent fruit? On the other hand, when the U. Somebody was vandalizing our trees and vines! There was little consideration that exorbitant executive salaries or illegal accounting practices might be detrimental to the whole superstructure, since they were undermining its foundation of integrity and trust. The royal bureaucracy was taking the majority of the produce of grove and vineyard for its own private enjoyment, stripping the vines and trees without care for the irreparable damage being done to them.

Perhaps God is providing an opportunity for us to reexamine the source of both prosperity and responsibility as he did for Israel.

Is it time to turn to the Source of the sun and the rain, the ultimate Provider of both seed and growth, in both apology and adoration? After all, the vineyards and trees are his, not ours.

Let all who live in the land tremble, for the day of the LORD is coming. It is close at hand— 2 a day of darkness and gloom, a day of clouds and blackness. Like dawn spreading across the mountains a large and mighty army comes, such as never was of old nor ever would be in ages to come.

Before them the land is like the garden of Eden, behind them, a desert waste— nothing escapes them. They all march in line, not swerving from their course. They plunge through defenses without breaking ranks. They climb into the houses; like thieves they enter through the windows. The day of the LORD is great; it is dreadful. Who can endure it? While this is most likely a metaphorical description of the invading locusts, it drives home the destructive capability of the invaders.

This further elucidates the Day of the Lord, a day so momentous that the entire nation needs to be warned of its approach. The description of the Day builds up throughout this passage, starting with the warning v.

The metaphor changes to overwhelming fire v. Its coming results in an apocalyptic cataclysm affecting the entire universe v.

Original Meaning A Warning concerning the Day 2: He rejoins the theme of the Day of the Lord 1: The second verb is more general, indicating that a loud noise is to be raised, whether by horn or voice rw 69 Joel 2: The inhabitants of the land shake, either in anger Ezek.

As the site of the temple, the dwelling of God himself Ps. It is also where the people gather to meet the onslaught. During war, they man the battlements from whence comes the call Ezek. It is not always clear whether the Day is recollected or anticipated, but in either case, it is a matter of consternation. The nature of the Day is described in terms used verbatim in Zephaniah 1: These are used elsewhere of a theophany, a visible manifestation of God in his awesome power Joel 2: What God delimited at creation Gen.

Israel thought the Day to be one of blessing, light, and brightness, but Amos corrects them of that perception. Zephaniah picks up these terms to develop his concept of the Day more fully, as a warning to his own period.

A possible linking feature leading to this comparison is the encroachment of a people 71 Joel 2: From the context, these survivors are not human but plants that will not be able to escape the locust horde see Ex. Verses 4—5 provide five different comparisons of the invader with an army. Thus, this is not a literal army but rather a metaphorical one—the locust horde cf.

The first three liken the locusts to cavalry forces: The description of the latter indicates the figurative nature of these analogies, since chariots cannot operate in mountain heights but need level terrain Josh.

Habakkuk 3: All three of these analogies are new to Joel. Neither passage is an exact parallel. It seems that Joel conflates them. Underlining indicates exact verbal parallels with Joel, and italics indicate equivalent variants in these literal renditions: See the introduction for a discussion of borrowing and relative dates.

Mary A. Littauer and J. In Ps. Without hospitals, babies were born at home with the help of midwives Ex. Such natural pestilences as drought, famine, or locust swarms knew no natural boundaries, so entire regions felt their effects. Most translations understand this as the color caused by blood flow being removed, resulting in a pallor, which is indeed a result of fear.

What appears more likely, based on word meaning as well as context, is that this refers to the glow or pinkness from the collected blood in the face, resulting in flushing, which is the opposite physiological phenomenon to pallor.

Also, flushing is more in keeping with labor contractions and strain than is pallor, which more often follows delivery. An almost verbatim parallel to this clause occurs in Nahum 2: This is yet another place where Joel uses material from another source. He also structures his material to provide a multileveled chiasm. The verse shows a partial chiasm of sound as well as syntax, which diagrammatically looks like this, with sound parallels underlined: They attack at a run, scaling the protective city walls Deut.

Just like at Jericho Josh. Verses 7b—9 detail what each of the members of these two groups does, these mighty warriors. The meaning of the first verb in verse 8 is uncertain, occurring only in Judges 2: The next six clauses may form another chiasm, beginning and ending with sentences with almost the same structure, with the middle four also sharing similar structures.

The four middle clauses in particular are short and staccato, rushing along like the attackers themselves. The last clause of verse 8 is variously interpreted. Verse 9 describes the actual progression of events for the marauding forces: The final comparison to a thief likely does not refer to their means of entry, by stealth at night Jer.

The Kapauku Ekari language was the first challenge John and Janine had to conquer. For Janine it was doubly difficult because she was learning English at the same time! Soon John was also given the responsibility of overseeing the Alliance Elementary School program, which was subsidized by the Dutch government. He also filled in as a teacher at the Continuation School in Tigi, grades four through six.

At the same time he did district work in the Lake Tigi area. For the last year of their first term, John and Janine moved back to Enarotali to teach in the Kapauku language Bible School.

After furlough they taught in the same Bible School, now located at Kebo, where they worked for several years with Walter and Viola Post, the first missionaries to the interior of Irian Jaya. Since no medical work was being done in Kebo at that time, they began to give out medicine, learning to give injections and treat injuries.

Though they had no formal training, they learned by doing, often consulting a mission doctor via the short wave radio. Most of the people who came were helped, and nobody died! The years in Kebo became the best of their lives, even though they had to evacuate twice because of political unrest in the area. After an extended furlough because of a severe medical problem of one of their children, they returned to Irian Jaya and at the request of the church they started the Theological School in Nabire.

The Lord evidently gave His approval to this new project, since He provided the money to develop the campus and the personnel to teach. John and Janine can look back over years of blessing in that second phase of their ministry. Their three oldest children, Ruthy, John Paul and Mitch, were born during their first term, with Viviane joining the family after their first furlough.

All their children are following the Lord and serving Him in different ways. John Paul J. The Schultzes are the proud grandparents of twelve very special grandchildren. In addition to their dedicated ministries to their students and to the national church, John and Janine's home is always open to fellow missionaries traveling through Nabire. Their servant hearts have been a blessing and challenge to all, and their warm hospitality will be greatly missed.

They will leave a large part of themselves which has been invested in many lives in their adopted land of Irian Jaya. This short video features the overwhelmingly beautiful and equally profound description of our King. As John and Janine Schultz served Christ so faithfully, we complete this web page with these words of Rev.

The Bible says my King is a seven-way king…. I wonder, do you know Him? My King is a sovereign King. No means of measure can define His limitless love. No far seeing telescope can bring into visibility the coastline of His shoreless supply. No barrier can hinder Him from pouring out His blessings. Do you know Him? He stands in the solitude of Himself…. He supplies strength for the weak…. He sympathizes and He saves…. He strengthens and sustains…. He guards and He guides….

He heals the sick…. He cleanses lepers…. He forgives sinners…. He discharges debtors…. He delivers captives…. He defends the feeble…. He blesses the young…. He serves the unfortunate…. He regards the aged…. He rewards the diligent…. I wonder if you know Him? Well, my King…. His office is manifold…. His promise is sure…. His light is matchless…. His goodness is limitless…. His mercy is everlasting…. His love never changes…. His word is enough….

His grace is sufficient…. His reign is righteous…. How long is that? And ever… and ever… and when you get through with all the forevers, then….

MYRTIE from Idaho
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