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INTRODUCTION TO PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION EBOOK

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In An Introduction to Public Administration students will gain concise knowledge about the theories and issues relating to public administration. Oriented toward. Title, An Introduction to Public Administration [by] E.N. Gladden. Author, Edgar Norman Gladden. Edition, 4. Published, Length, pages. Export Citation . Editorial Reviews. Review. "This remarkable introductory book on public administration is Kindle Store; ›; Kindle eBooks; ›; Politics & Social Sciences.

This fresh and highly engaging textbook for the introductory Public Administration course covers all the. Please choose whether or not you want other users to be able to see on your profile that this library is a favorite of yours. Finding libraries that hold this item You may have already requested this item. Please select Ok if you would like to proceed with this request anyway.

Public administration as an activity is as old as civilization but as an academic discipline is a little over a hundred years old. This, however, does not mean by implication that thinkers in earlier ages had never said anything significant about public administration. Functioning of the governmental machinery has attracted the attention of scholars and administrators since the earliest periods of history. Kautilya s Arthashastra, the Mahabharata, the Ramayana and the maxims and teachings of Confucius in the realm of Oriental thought contain many profound observations about the organization and working of government.

In the history of western political thought, Aristotle s politics and Machiavelli s The Prince are important contributions to administrative thought and practice. Scattered thoughts, however, do not constitute a discipline though it is interesting to note that even without systematic teaching and study of the subject, great cities, public works and monuments have been built, vast empires administered, huge armies organized, taxes collected, effective law and order maintained and enforced throughout history.

Therefore, public administration as an activity proceeded long before systematic study of the subject began in the eighteenth century. Official academic status to the discipline did not come until World War I when professional chairs in public administration were established and subject textbooks published. Only when governments could be differentiated from other societal institutions and their activities developed to the point where professional administrators were indispensable for their effective performance, could modern public administration emerge.

The term public administration began to creep into European languages during the seventeenth century to distinguish between the absolute monarch s administration of public affairs and his management of his private household.

The contemporary discipline arose out of the. Paulinadu, The subject was largely compiled and taught in a descriptive manner by professors of cameral sciences, which then included all knowledge considered necessary for the governance of an absolutist state. The cameralist approach continued to influence European studies in public administration well into the twentieth century, until it was replaced by the administrative law and legal studies approach.

Ideologically cameralism gave way to bureaucracy. Civil service recruits had to study administrative law and gradually all over Europe including Nigeria public service training schools started offering courses on administrative law and public administration. The original purpose of the study of public administration was not to cultivate knowledge for its own sake.

Instead, its purpose was explicitly utilitarian.

Public administration : an introduction

The study of administration was directed at the twin pursuits of reforming government and training civil servants. Woodrow Wilson was the first to articulate the principles underlying the civil service reform movement in the USA.

Wilson declared that the central purpose of the study of public administration was to discover and establish a set of valid principles and the most efficient ways of organizing and running the executive branch of government. Thus, Administrative theory grew in the late nineteenth century and the early.

This goal is still important. However gradually, the study of public administration has also acquired certain intellectual objectives. The benefits or the advantages of the study of public administration may be briefly stated as follows. The study of public administration: Helps the student learn the basic concepts, principles and theories of public administration. Helps explain the purposes, functions, and continuation of government bureaucracy. Provides knowledge of public organizations and the context and methods by which they operate.

Promotes a superior understanding of government and its relationship with the society it governs and thus it enables us to learn more about how our country is governed. Is useful as training for citizenship and for preparing citizens for an active participation in the process of democratic governance. Makes us learn how to promote the public interest more effectively.

Promotes among the people an awareness of the importance of the administrative activity in their lives. Is useful to make public policies, which are more responsive to public needs. As an applied discipline, provides knowledge which is helpful to the policy makers and to those who implement policies, and x. Prepares students for employment in the government services and makes them aware of the opportunities and challenges of the public service and thus is useful as a self-serving investment.

In the administrative state public administration has become all encompassing and affect the lives of the people from the womb to the tomb since the end of the second world war governmental activities have increased manifold and became more complex and pervasive. Public administration has undergone far-reaching changes both in its objectives and functions.

Consequently public administrators have entered new functional areas. They are grappling with new problems in administering public affairs. It is recognized that public administration plays crucial role in all societies-developed and developing. In the modern administrative state,public administration has become so significant that our development, upliftment and progress depend mainly upon the efficient functioning of public administration.

The different roles played by public administration in the modern society may be analyzed under the following heads: As the Basis of Government Public administration serves as the basis of government. A government can exist without a legislature or an independent judiciary. But no government can exist without administrative machinery.

Paul H. Appleby remarks, without administration government would be a discussion club, if indeed it could exist at all. All nations, irrespective of their system of government, require some sort of administrative machinery for implementing public policies.

Thus, public administration has been the instrument of ancient empires, of monarchies of both democracies and dictatorship, of both developed and developing nations. As an activity public administration cuts across different political ideologies such as. Administrative principles as such have no particular ideology at heart. Administration is conceived as a purely neutral instrument.

An Instrument for Implementing Laws and Policies Public administration is responsible for implementing the laws and policies of government. In doing this public administration plays a crucial role. By carrying out laws, it regulates the behaviour of the people in society.

By implementing public policies and programmes, it delivers the promised goods and services to the intended beneficiaries. It is said that the ideals and objectives of government may be very popular, the plans for national development may be extremely progressive and the national resources of the country may be abundant, but without an efficient administration nothing can be achieved.

In other words, even the good objectives of the best policies and laws of a government may remain as mere paper declarations of intent, if the administrative machinery does not function efficiently and honestly. An efficient public administration can avoid waste, correct errors; limit the consequences of incompetence, or irresponsibility while implementing laws and public policies.

Thus public administration acts as an instrument for translating plans, laws and policies into reality.

Gorwala remarks, in a democracy there can be no successful planning without a clear, efficient and impartial administration. Participation in Policy Formulation According to Dimock and Dimock, Adminstration In the modern world bureaucracy is the chief policy maker in government. It is a source of facts and experience as well as of ideas and solution of public problems. In modern democracies public administrators participate in policy making by.

As Sir Josiah Stamp says, the officials must be the main spring of the new society, suggesting, promoting and advising at every stage. The administrative tasks of public bureaucracy include formulation of policies and plans, executing and monitoring programmes, laying down laws rules and regulations, which affect human actions in almost all walks of life. A Great Stabilizing Force in Society Public administration acts as a great stabilizing force in society.

It settles social tensions and conflicts and thus creates social unity and harmony. This role of public administration is of particular significance in the newly independent Afro-Asian developing countries and Nigeria in particular. Public administrators solve social problems.

Thus public administration stabilizers social structure, social organization. As Paul Pigors says, The main purpose of administration is to preserve the status quo in society. The administrative function ensures the continuance of the existing order with a minimum of effort and risk. Its fundamental aim is to carry on rather than to venture along new and untried paths.

Administrators are, therefore, the stabilizers of society and the guardians of tradition. Provides Continuity when Government Change Public administration carries on government when rulers change every now and then owing to elections or revolutions or coups.

According to Ramsay Muir, while governments may come and go, ministers may rise and fall, the administration of a country goes on forever. No revolution can change it and no upheaval can uproot it. It is a proven fact of history that public administration survives even revolutions and coup d tat or change a. Felix A Nigro remarks. Public administration provides a number of services in the public interest. Protective functions First of all, public administration protects the life and property of the people by maintaining law and order.

The survival and progress of human beings in society depend on the proper enforcement of laws against lawbreakers. Bhambhrl remarks,. This is because the law of the jungle will prevail in society, if public administration fails to perform this function effectively.

National defence is another protective function performed by public administration. This function is essential for the maintenance of the independence of the nation and protecting its frontiers. As a result of rapid industrialization there is the problem of environmental pollution, which threatens our lives, and civilization.

Befouled air, water and earth affect our health and lives. Now almost all governments are making efforts at the enhancement of environment quality.

The environmental administration regulates the relations between man and earth with its environment. It must maintain the quality of air, the uses of the ocean, and the purity of rivers and streams. It considers man s spiritual and physical survival. Facilitative services Today public administration provides facilitative services such as transportation, communications, supply of power, and so on. Management of public enterprises Public administrators manage public enterprise and public utilities in the interest of socio-economic justice.

Public utilities are either publicly owned or strictly regulated in most countries. Government also imposes controls over private economic and business activities in the public interest. Welfare services The welfare services provided for the people include social security, old age pensions, welfare of the weaker sections, family planning, health, unemployment relief, poverty alleviation, housing etc. Promotion of agriculture, industry etc Public administration promotes agriculture, industry, internal and international trade, banking, insurance etc Cultural services In the cultural sphere, public administration undertakes certain functions as provision of education, promotion of science and technology, encouragement of arts and ideology etc.

Maintenance of Political system Public administration is concerned with the maintenance of the nation s political system and national unity. It is a continuous process in determining the activities of the government.

To be brief, it is concerned with the preservation of the polity. The wide variety of functions performed by public administration is influenced by developments in the political, economic and social area. The preceding discussion indicates that public administration has become a part of the social, economic, political and cultural life of the people.

How well we enjoy the service provided by government depend, in large part, on how well they are administered. Hence, in simpler societies of early days good administration was important, but in modern complex societies good administration is essential.

It has to play a very important role not only as an instrument of governance but also as an important means to achieve the goals of socio-economic progress and nation building.

As Appleby says, The heart of administration is the management of programmes designed to serve the general welfare. An Instrument of Social Change and Economic Development Public administration is concerned with managing change in pursuit of publicly defined societal values. In the developing nations of Asia, Africa and Latin America public administration acts as an instrument of social change and economic development. The developing nations are mostly traditional and poor agricultural societies without adequate basic amenities of good life.

These nations are anxious to achieve modernization of society and economic development and realize welfare goals. The state is called upon to achieve these goals. These objectives have placed challenging tasks on public administration such as formulation of economic plans and their successful implementation to realize economic growth and social change and welfare goals.

The accomplishment of these goals requires honest and competent public administrators. Without efficient administration socio-economic progress cannot be achieved. It is expected today to be the accelerator of economic and social change. In the words of E. N Gladden, Administration is a long and slightly pompous word, but it has a humble meaning, for it means to care for or to look after people, to manage affairs.

He defines it as determined action taken in pursuit of conscious purpose. Administration is a rational human activity, which is inherent in any organized social life public or private. It occurs even in such a simple activity as when two men cooperate to roll a stone that neither could have moved alone.

It consists of all those operations, which aim at the achievement of some purpose shared by two or more people. To put it differently, administration is a cooperative human effort towards achieving some common goals. It is, thus, a goal-oriented, purposive, cooperative, joint activity undertaken by a group of people.

Administration, therefore, excludes non-purposive and non-cooperative group activities such as two men fighting with each other or watching a stone. In this example the two men are not mutually involved in a joint endeavour. Administration also excludes those operations that concern a single individual, e. This one-man activity is not administration because it lacks cooperative effort made by two or more people to accomplish a common goal.

Thus we can understand what administration is: According to George E. Berkley, administration is: People; because without the presence of people there can be no administration ii. Action; people have to do something before administration can enter the picture; and.

Interaction; administration is people interacting with other people to accomplish task. Joint activity is an essential part of all administration.

In its generic sense, administration is a universal process that can be found in various institutional settings such as a business firm; a hospital, a university a government department and so on. All these diverse organizations use commonly the same administrative processes e.

Thus administration is concerned with means to achieve prescribed ends. It is not an end in itself. This view of administration disregards what kind of administration is in question. In this sense the term administration covers both public and private organizations. Definition of Public Administration As E. Gladden says, the field of public administration is mainly a debate over definitions.

Despite more than a hundred years of development, public administration lacks a significant definition that is acceptable to all students of public administration.

Various scholars have defined it in different ways. While the traditional writers have defined public administration in its narrower sense, the modern scholars have defined it is its wider sense. Let us examine both the views by quoting some important definitions. Traditional Definitions The following are some of the important definitions of public administration, which reflect the traditional view of the disciplines.

Public administration is detailed and systematic execution of law. Every particular application of law is an act of administration. Woodrow Wilson. To Wilson, Administration is the most obvious part of government, it is government in action, and it is the executive, the operative, the most visible side of government. Public Administration consists of all those operations having for their purpose the fulfilment or enforcement of public policy.

D White 3. By public administration is meant, in common usage, the activities of the executive branches of the National, state, and local government Herbert A. Simon 4. Public Administration is that part of the science of administration which has to do with government, and thus concerns itself primarily with the executive branch, where the work of government is done, though there are obviously administrative problems also in connection with the legislative and judicial branches Luther Gulick 5.

Public administration is the action part of government, the means by which the purposes and goals of government are realized. Corson and Harris 6. In its broadest sense, it public administration denotes the work involved in the actual conduct of governmental affairs, regardless of the particular branch of government concerned.

In its narrowest sense, it denotes the operations of the administrative branch only. Willoughby 7. Administration consists of getting the work of government done by. Pfiffner in Polinaidu, The definitions quoted above reflect the narrow traditional point of view of public administration. This view locates public administration in the executive branch of government. Its main business comprises all those activities that are involved in carrying out public policies as expressed in laws made by the legislature and interpreted by courts.

It is denied any role in both legislative i. Its main business is to get things done and not to decide what things to do. Public administration is thus identified with the administrative side of government as opposed to the legislative and judicial sides.

Therefore, the traditional view is unduly restrictive as an explanation and does not fully capture the scope of public administration. It emphasizes the locus but not the focus of Public Administration. The reason is that administration not only carries out policy but also recommends it. Administration is also concerned with the hearing and deciding cases and controversies not allocated to the judiciary.

For all these reasons the traditional view presents too narrow, formalistic, and legalistic picture of Public Administration. Some Modern Definitions Some modern textbook writers such as M. Dimock, James Fesler and F. Nigro have used the term Public Administration in its wider sense. In their opinion, public administration has some responsibility in formulating governmental policies, besides executing them. The definitions quoted below are illustrative of the modern broader view of public administration.

Public administration is the area of study and practice where law. Dimock and G. Dimock 2 public Administration is policy executive and also policy formulation James W.

Fesler 1. Public Administration i. Is cooperative group effort in a public setting ii. Covers all three branches their interrelationships.

Has an important role in the formulation of policy and is thus a part of the political process. Is different in significant ways from private administration, and v. Is closely associated with numerous private groups and individuals in providing services to the community. Conclusions Organisation emanated from the societies need to maintain law and order and to regulate inter-group relations.

With the increasing need for administration to go beyond the normal maintenance of law and order to the provision of social services, public administration come to cover all governmental activities from the formulation of policies to the accomplishment of common goals. It covers all areas of planning, organising, budgeting, coordinating and directing of governmental affairs.

Public administration could be studied as an academic discipline or as an activity. As a discipline it deals with systematic teaching and the study of the subject, great cities, and public works, how empires are administered and how law and order is maintained and enforced throughout history. While as an activity it deals with the entire act of governance and all the knowledge considered necessary for governance.

The study of Public administration is significant because it exposes the executive, legislative, and judicial and. This is because public administration serves as the basis of governance and more significantly as an instrument for implementing laws and policies, a stabilising force in society, providing protective functions among others.

Public Administration has been subjected to varied definations,among which is the definition of public administration as the most obvious part of government , The executive branch of government , The action part of government. Regardless of these definitions one fact remain central; that public administration is the machinery through which cooperative efforts can be achieved and sustained. Summary In this unit, we have been able to look at the origin of public administration as it preceded the modern understanding of the subject matter.

It is also stated here that public administration can be studied as an activity and also as a discipline dealing with a range of activities of government and theorising the functioning and existence of government. Public administration also deals with all governmental activities including the areas of planning, organising, budgeting, coordinating and directing governmental activities. The unit also explain the significance to the study of public administration, and concluded by clarifying the definition of concept as administration, organisation and management.

List and explain advantages of studying public administration 2. What are the significance of public administration 3. Define public administration as the basis of government. Normative approach concentrates on what public administration should be.

Empirical approach sets its eyes on description and analysis of actual administrative Situations. Another classification of approaches is based upon the objects of study the individual scholar seeks to emphasize, such as; Philosophical approach Legal approach Historical approach Scientific approach Case Method Approach Institutional and Structural Approach Behavioural Approach Philosophical Approach The Philosophical approach takes within its purview all aspects of administrative activities.

Its goal is to find out and enunciate the principles or ideals underlying these activities. Leviathan , etc. The philosophical approach is perhaps the oldest approach to public administration as of all other social sciences. Legal Approach The legal approach is the systematically formulated approach and traces its ancestry to the European tradition of rooting Public administration in law.

Public administration was considered to be a part of law, concentrating on legally prescribed structure and organization of Public authorities. This approach was formed at a time when the functions of the state were narrowly limited and simple in nature. The legal or juristic method is mostly used in France, Germany, and Belgium. These countries have a long tradition of administrative law.

The administrative law is an important branch of Public law and is conceived in quite broad terms so as to include the organization and functions of public authorities and with the problem of their correlation, powers and responsibilities.

Public administration is considered to be a part of administrative law and as such it is studied in the legal framework. In India also the administrative study was mainly preoccupied with the legal foundations of administrative authority and its procedures and was narrower in its scope than that of European continent because there law itself was conceived in broad sociological terms whereas in India, it had a narrow juristic connotation.

Historical Approach The historical approach to the study of public administration Seeks to recreate a segment of history. It Studies the public administration of the past with a particular time span, organizing and interpreting the information in a Chronological order.

This approach naturally commands a powerful attraction in a society having rich past and can be valuable in identifying the uniqueness of the administrative system. Scientific Approach Public administration like many other social sciences makes use of the inductive method of proceeding from particular to general through observation for collecting the data, classification of data and verification of the hypotheses.

The scientific management movement gave a great fillip to the use of this method in the development of effective techniques of organization and management and of budgeting and supply.

Administration was separated from politics. It was treated as a mechanical organization and was subjected to the rigours of laws of mechanics.

Although the Study of public administration has now passed off the Stage of scientific management fad, many activities of the office management, accounting and control of material and supply are still determined on the scientific principles. Measurement of work, time and motion studies, work flow charts, cost accounting and opinion sampling and polls are the techniques based on the Scientific and technical method for the solution of administrative problems.

Case Method Approach A case is a narration of what has actually taken place in administration, keeping in fact the context and all relevant dimensions.

Ably, handled, the case method approach is a sensitive one, seeking as it does to reconstruct the administrative realities and gives to students a. The case approach has been motivated by a commitment to the objectives and methods of social sciences. It has been shaped also by a considerable sensitivity to traditional concerns of humanities and by practical interest in pedagogy as against research.

The case method to the study of public administration began to be popularized in the thirties. The case method has come to stay in public administration, but it cannot become the dominant approach. In Public administration, case study is essentially historical method.

It is a method in which an administrative decision, in any given question or issue, is made the focal point for historical exposition. Its aim is to point out as to what factors or considerations- political, economical, and personal or any other-influence the decision of the administrator and also to know the process of decision or policy-making.

The case as presented to the student in the file on monograph comprises every possible aspect of the situation. It is best presented as a running account embodying explanations of various procedures as they occur in relation to the circumstances. It provides the student with indications concerning the legislative and institutional framework within which the problem to be solved by the administrative agencies arises. It also, wherever possible contains notes to help the analyst understand the psychological back-ground, the characters of the people who took part in the case, the tensions among the staff of the administrative organization concerned, and other factors.

The account as a whole is intended to reconstruct and explain, with reference to the greatest number of identifiable factors, the initiation, procedure and conclusion of the operation concerned and more specially, the process of formalizing the administrative decision. The case histories are prepared with the help of relevant documents and files, inquiries and interviews with officers concerned and all other sources of the case.

Public Administration and policy Administration published by the interuniversity case programme of the United States was a pioneering use of this technique. Following this several national institutes of public administration of various countries have launched their own study programme. A brought out three books on case studies the I. A and the National Academy of Administration have prepared about eighty case studies in memography form for their training use. The I. A recently published four more volumes of its case Studies.

Some of the limitations of this that, re-living another person s life through case studies never succeed. Secondly, the most significant part of a decision is the agony of it; one cannot relire the agony anxiety and put himself in another individual s position.

Institutional and structural Approach This approach to the study of public administration is the oldest and in point of number, it has the largest following. But it is least homogenous of all schools of public administration as it includes among its protagonists, teachers and research workers with varied training, ranging from political scientist to specialists in scientific management techniques.

The common features of this school which distinguishes it from other schools of administrative thought. These features are of follows The followers of this school took policy administration dichotomy quite seriously. They defined the task of administration as nonpolitical or technical which lay merely in carrying out the will of political authority by either neutral means.

They directed all their efforts to discover principles of public administration. The early work of this school is characterized by an empirical and pragmatic approach. Their sole aim was to describe a set of facts and not to build any theories. This view prevails particularly in United States during the period between the two world wars and its greatest exponents were Leonard. White and Luther Gulick. Since the fifties of the last century, there has been a shift in this approach.

Although the study has retained its institutional character, yet the policy administration dichotomy has been qualified after being found too hasty. More attention is now being given to the normative aspects of public administration and administration is being viewed as an element in political theory and the accepted political Values.

Scholars like John. Gaus and Paul Appleby of this school have frankly given up the technical view of public administration and they approach public administration from the broad political standpoint. Behavioural Approach This approach examines public administration by studying individual and collective human behavior in administrative situation. It brings to bear upon administrative problems on interdisciplinary approach which includes Sociology, individual and social psychology and cultural anthropology.

Originated in the United States this approach focuses on the actual behavior of persons and groups in organizations and has four Characters which are of follows The increased attention to the individual and his relationship to the administrative organization in which scientific-management approach tended to consider him rather as a thing or a means, without taking in to account the different aspects of his personality and his relationship to interests and social group other than the administrative organization in which he worked.

Increased attention to the individual in administration is based on more realistic research concerning motivation, decision making process and nature of authority. Administration is studied as a social system with the result that whereas formerly attention was concentrated exclusive on formal and rational relationships of the organization, now informal relationships of men in the organization receive equal attention.

On account of these developments, more importance is given to communication. This is understandable because an administration is described as a complex aggregate of human relations.

Under the traditional approaches the only recognized means of communication were the formal orders and circulars issued by the superior to the subordinates and reports and returns submitted by the subordinates to their superiors.

But under the new approach, the informal means of contact and communication receive of as much attention as the formal ones. Replacement of the theory of Sovereignty by that of legitimacy. The concept of political sovereignty had given birth to the theories of hierarchical structure, line of authority, chain of command, delegation and others.

Under the new approach, there is an increasing tendency to analyse the reason why given persons, considered individually and collectively, feel that they must obey orders. Thus emphasis is put on administrative leadership and motivation. In this method a new approach is followed by comparing the behavioral pattern of public administration in different countries, this comparative method has been used in studying the contemporary system of government and administration.

The Behavioural science and the case study approach has impacted a distinct shift in the techniques of comparative approach in which the normative study of comparative administration merged gradually into the empirical and explanatory writings on different administrative systems. The recent trend is towards a nomothetic approach whereas earlier it was towards ideographic approach. Ideographic approach showed interest in concrete situations, case studies, area information and particular facts while the present emphasis is on theory or testable propositions which assert regularities of behavior and correlation between variables.

The new trend involves a greater interest in the environment factors as they interact with public administration. It is now realized that these factors conditions and are conditioned by governmental behavior and hence their study is an essential part of study of public administration. The Consensus Approach The principles of public administration developed at the time were devices suggested to achieve efficiency.

This efficiency-oriented approach coupled with the anti- patronage movement was strengthened by the view that policy making and policy implementing are two different things. Policy determining was considered to be field of politics, and policyimplementation, the field of administration. It is now accepted that administration is involved in policy formulation also.

It is now wrong to say that policies can be formulated without the advice or assistance of administrative staff. The whole theory of delegated legislation disproved the dichotomy between politics and administration. According to Appleby, Public administration is policy-making. It is not autonomous, exclusive or isolated policy-making. It is policy-making on a field where mighty forces contend- forces engendered in any society.

Further, public administration cannot be fruitfully studied apart from its political and social setting. The Structural approach concentrated on the description of the administrative structure of the government bodies.

But the administrative structure and techniques cannot be studied without proper reference to the environment in which public administration is working as well as the human factor. According to the scientific management approach, the problems of the public administration should be studied by the methods and spirit of science. Taylor concentrated on the work methods, machines and materials. He was concerned with the questions of mechanical efficiency.

Scientific management taking efficiency as the objective, views administration as a technical problem concerned basically with the division of labour and specialization of functions. This approach is considered defective because it ignores the human elements in administration. The socio-psychological approach or the Behavioural approach believes that public administration should be concerned with the study of human behavior in organization and operations of the various organizations.

According to Simon decision making is the most important activity of administration. Human beings who work in an organization have aspirations and desires.

Their behavior is conditioned by their psychology, motives and social. The administrative science should study these facts of behavior without getting involved in the question of values. This new approach is universalistic in character and its purpose is to build a system of interlocking generalizations about how organizations actually behave in these organizations. Summary The approaches to the study of public administration can be summarized as Public administration was studied from the background of administrative law.

The emphasis in this jusrisdical approach is on formal structures both constitutional and administrative. It has been concerned with officers, with duties, limitations, prerogatives and disabilities of officers and with legal, litigation and rights of Citizen.

In the comparative public administration approach stimulated by the United Nations, the emphasis is on understanding the problems of administration operating under different socio political and cultural settings. Another approach is to study public administration in relation to political parties and pressure groups.

Historical approach is also a fascinating area of study. Many lessons can be learnt by studying the history of administration. Institutional approach is to study the structure. It deals with the study of organs of the State. The Behavioural approach claims to explain administrative processes that are common to many forms of organization. The focus is on human behavior, including Psychology, Sociology and anthropology.

Explain Philosophical Approach to the study of Public Administration 2. Explain Legal Approach to the study of Public Administration 3. Explain Historical Approach to the study of Public Administration 4.

Meaning Discrepancy? In the first discussions it was clear how many differing and disparate arguments could play a role in establishing a decision-making model. It was evident that the problems arising in the conservation and restoration of modern and contemporary art are complex. The present model originated from new and improved attempts to steer the discussions of the theoretical working group into proper channels.

Once a consensus has been reached concerning the terminology, the model appears to function well: The model presented here builds upon a model for decision making in conservation issues developed earlier by Ernst van de Wetering.

C This model took into account an important aspect of such decisions, namely that they always represent a compromise between various. These considerations can sometimes conflict. Moreover, comparable considerations may weigh differently depending on the individual cases. Each case requires a new evaluation of whether preservation of the appearance is more or less important than preservation of the authentic material or possible functioning of the object.

The pros and cons of each individual case have to be weighed and guide the final decision in various paths. The final result will always prevail over one or even more of the various considerations. This process is illustrated as a circle with the factors to be considered as arrows facing inward which, in accordance with the value attached to the various considerations, guide the process in a certain given direction with more or less force.

The final decision, thus, is both a compromise and a reflection of the relevant factors. Ernst van de Wetering s model was initially developed with the conservation problems associated with traditional art in mind. In order to apply it to contemporary art, it had to be expanded. With regard to traditional art, the meaning of the object in a material sense is generally unambiguous.

Material and technique serve the meaning, which is largely determined by the representation. This means that as long as the representation is preserved, intervention with regard to the material characteristics of the work do not have to take place at the expense of the work s meaning, to the extent that this is determined by the representation. Naturally, they can take place at the expense of other elements of the meaning that are determined by technique and material, such as the transparency and depth of the colour, or of other values, such as authenticity.

Decision-making model, Foundation for the Conservation of Modern Art 2 addition, with traditional art there is usually greater agreement as to the meaning of a given work of art: With regard to non-traditional objects of modern and contemporary art, the relationship between material and meaning is usually ambiguous. Meanings are mostly specific to the artist in question or even the object in question.

Materials and techniques. The array of materials and techniques is thereby so expanded that in principle anything and everything can be used. A concomitant factor is that the less traditional the material used is, the more it contributes to the meaning of the work. A consequence of this is that a change in the material characteristics of a contemporary art work often directly alters its meaning. Along these lines, active conservation procedures which directly intervene with the material identity of the art work can also have repercussions for the meaning.

With respect to non-traditional objects of contemporary art, two moments can be distinguished in the decision-making process as to their conservation in which the role a particular material characteristic plays with regard to meaning must be investigated. The first moment in the model is when the consequences of a change in the material condition of a work for its meaning have to be established.

Is there a discrepancy between the physical condition of the art work and its meaning? Not every change in the condition of the material is equally problematic: Sometimes the meaning can denote decay: In that case, conservation implies an intervention affecting the intended meaning.

Should a conscious discrepancy be established between the physical condition of the work and its meaning and treatment proposals have been formulated, a second moment arises when the significance of material characteristics for meaning must be investigated.

At this point, the consequences of various possible active conservation interventions which entail just as many changes in the material characteristics of the work must be investigated.

Thus, there are two moments when the relationship of the material characteristics to the meaning of the art work must be investigated: These considerations led to an expansion of Ernst van de Wetering s original model and now we speak of two circles: For Decision-making model, Foundation for the Conservation of Modern Art 3 both of these moments various considerations can guide the decision to be made in various directions.

For both moments, moreover, the considerations that lead to an answer are not predetermined, but originate from the problem at hand. The questions formulated in the instructions indicate only a direction. The questions are grouped around various aspects of the object: Moreover, the questions can be answered from various perspectives: The answers will rarely agree, and it cannot be stated a priori which perspective should prevail.

The model presented here suggests a decision-making trajectory. It addresses the condition phenomenon; whether this phenomenon is a problem; and if so of what nature; it proposes various solutions; weighs the consequences of these solutions; and proposes a definitive conservation plan.

The model is not intended to give a description of the manner in which decisions are made in reality. The model is not descriptive, but normative: Data registration Knowledge of the object, including information on the materials used, the way it was made and the intentions of the artist is crucial for the conservation of contemporary objects.

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The gathering and registration of this knowledge forms the basis for a responsible decision as to conservation. Experience has taught the Conservation of Modern Art project that some basic information is necessary for the conservation of contemporary objects. This was only sporadically available from the museums involved in the project.

In some instances the implicit knowledge of a curator, conservator or another outside expert could be tapped. In a number of instances, the necessary information could no longer be recovered. A model for data registration was developed during the Conservation of Modern Art project that can be used as a guideline in gathering and registering the necessary information.

Register the following information, preferably using the model for data registration. Information about and from the artist about the actual production of the object, its meaning and particularly the meaning of the material possibly through an interview with the artist.

Literature on the artist. Information on the composition of materials, brand names, production processes, information from assistants and producers. Decision-making model, Foundation for the Conservation of Modern Art 6 2. Condition In determining the condition of a work, first the composition and ageing of the materials must be scientifically chemically, biological,. This is followed by an analysis of the mechanical ageing for example through use and of reactions to the environment pollution.

In the event of damage to the object, the damage and consequent changes must be precisely documented.

In establishing the condition of the object, questions can also be formulated about the future ageing behaviour of a specific material. In a number of cases it will be difficult to predict the future ageing behaviour and the conditions under which this will arise.

A problem in describing the condition of contemporary objects is that the composition of many of the materials used is not known and moreover the ageing behaviour of many materials has not been investigated.

This holds true primarily for the new materials , such as plastics, but also for parts of equipment, such as transistors and cathode-ray tubes screens.

The more information we have concerning the materials used and their composition, the better their condition can be determined. The condition report is made on a regular basis, when checking the condition of the object or when there is a concrete reason for doing so, for example when the object is being lent or has been damaged. Each new condition report is then appended to the data registration.

The model for condition regristration was developed in the course of the Conservation of Modern Art project. The most appropriate expert for making such a report is a conservator. Decision-making model, Foundation for the Conservation of Modern Art 7 3.

Meaning Determining the meaning of the work prior to conservation is the foundation for responsible decision making in the conservation of modern art. The meaning of a work, however, is layered and certainly not unambiguous. One can speak of meaning imparted by the artist, but also by a context criticism, group, style, time , by a place collection, country, site-specific , or event performance.

In addition, the choice of material and working method has consequences for the meaning of the work. Finally there are also ideological political, philosophical and religious layers of meaning.

In the case of modern art, materials and working methods acquire a highly specific significance so that conservation research must be conducted per artist and per work. Because conservation in most cases constitutes an intervention in the materiality of the work, research into this layer of meaning before a conservation method is established is particularly important. The meaning of the work is determined on the basis of available data gathered in the course of the investigation.

The gathering of data that could influence the meaning of the work with an emphasis on the use of material and working method is thus one of the first activities to be undertaken in the conservation of modern art.

Following specific research for the sake of conservation, information related to the meaning is amplified and refined. Determine the general meaning of the object on the basis of the following questions: What is the subject or theme of the work whether or not this can be gauged from the title?

What is the importance of the perceptible appearance for the meaning of the work? After all, this book is only a supplement to the preparation. The purpose of the book will be served if the candidates are able to answer, thanks to the book, at least a single question over and above the general cutting-edge.

Available online at www. This is a major obstacle for development in the Third World nations. However, according to Taylor, the duty of enforcing the adoption of standards and of enforcing the cooperation rests with the management alone.

Individual workers are considered as important as the organisation itself. But, the goals of both the theories are same,viz. White, the formal and informal organisations usually overlap, may nearly coincide, or may be far apart. While trying to develop a critique of the political economy of the capitalism in the 19th century, he became a keep observer of the administration, which induced him to write on administration. Herbert Simon widened the scope of Public Administration by relating it to Psychology, sociology, economics and Political Science.

Honey Report identified four problems confronting Public Administration. They are: Inadequate funds 2. Uncertainty and confusion over the status of the discipline 3. Institutional shortcomings and 4. Lack of interaction between scholars and administrators.

New Public Administration emphasised four factors: Relevance, Values, Change and Social equity. Under the traditional Public Administration, there was a mismatch between the supply of public administration and the demand of the people. Though the Public Administration functioned well, it failed to solve the contemporary problems.

Hence, the New Public Administration demanded that there should be relevance between Public Administration and the contemporary social problems. Traditional Public Administration emphasised value-neutrality. For example, both rich and poor will be treated equally without any favour for one side. However, New Public Administration championed the cause of the disadvantaged sections in society and openly sided with them. Thus, it emphasised value factor in administration.

New Public Administration specifically emphasised that the basic function of administration is to distribute the resources in such a way to reduce the economic and social inequalities. This is to maintain social equity.

New Public Administration attacked the traditional concept of maintaining status quo same status and advocated innovation and change. New Public Administration is called anti-positivist. Positivist denotes the perception that everything is perfect. But, the reality of the situation was not so.

Karl Marx regarded Censorship as a bureaucratic instrument for maintaining politics as a reserved domain of a particular class. According to this, the top officials entrust the understanding of the specifics to the lower levels, while the lower level officials credit the top with understanding of the general, and so, all are mutually deceived.

According to Riggs, five important functions are discharged in all the societies. Economic 2. Social 3. Communication 4. Symbolic and 5. Heterogeneity, according to Riggs, means the simultaneous presence of quite different kinds of systems, practices and viewpoints. This is unique to prismatic model. Formalism means the extent to which a discrepancy exists between the prescriptive and descriptive — ideals and realities — objectives and performance — aims and achievements.

Formalism is the opposite of realism. In the Prismatic societies there is high level of formalism and low level of realism.

Hence the Fused-Prismatic-Diffracted model is not unidirectional. Constitutional formalism is the gap between the constitutional principles and their actual implementation.

One example for constitutional formalism in India is that while the function of legislation law making is entrusted to the legislators by the Constitution, it is delegated to the bureaucrats in the name of delegated legislation. Overlapping is the extent to which formally differentiated structures of a diffracted society co-exist with undifferentiated structures of a fused society.

Various manifestations of Overlapping are: Nepotism 2.

Poly-communalism 3. Poly- normativism 4.

Pub Introduction to Public Administration i | Public Administration (K views)

Existence of clects 5. Lack of consensus 6. Separation of authority from control. This may drive the administrator to reckon the reaction of his boss as. As such, the accuracy of the prediction will be higher in the bottom physical needs of the hierarchy and it reduces as one goes up in the hierarchy. It is easy to guess what a person, who is deprived of food, will do. But, it is difficult to guess what a person, who is denied appreciation by his boss, will do.

Satisfaction is a relative term. Emergence of a particular need after satisfaction of a lower order need is not sudden but a gradual phenomenon.

Both are different and discrete feelings. They are not opposite ends of the same continuum, but are ends of separate continuums. He is a member of a higher level group and the leader of a lower-level group. This is because, what has to be supervised is not only the individual subordinates, but also the numerous permutations and combinations of their mutual relationships. Investigation is inquiry on receipt of specific complaint.

Inspection is sudden visit to find out any faults. Supervision more than control and it connote education and guidance. It can be vice versa or between units equal in status. The difference is that, in the centralised systems, the filed units are only executing agencies and cannot take independent decisions whereas in the decentralised systems, the field units have decision-making authority. The authority ceases. Follet, like authority, responsibility also flows from the function work and situation, and NOT from the status in the hierarchy.

The reason is that it advocates participation of people in the process of administration. It means delegated functions cannot be delegated again. That is, if A delegates a work to B, B in turn cannot delegate it to any other person. These three personnel systems can be remembered easily with the mnemonic BAD.

The reason is that a single person mans a bureau, while a board or commission is generally manned by more than one person. The reasons are: Parliament in India is not a rival to the Prime Minister, the Cabinet relieves the burden of the Prime Minister and acts as a coordinator; and there are comparatively few political appointees at the top. The Executive, who needs money, places the Appropriation bill.

The parliament cannot give more money than needed by the executive. The report is submitted first to the President who lays it before the Lok Sabha, which it turn gives it to the PAC for scrutiny.

In case the Finance Ministry considers any of the recommendations of the PAC difficult to implement, the matter is referred to the Parliament for decision. Accountability refers to the formal and specific location of responsibility, whereas responsibility has a highly personal, moral quality and is not necessarily related to formal status or power. Responsibility is subjective and works from within, whereas accountability is objective and works from without.

Paul H. Appleby considers administration to be a political process and mainly concerned with policy-making. He also asserted that public adminsitration is different from private administration. A prismatic social group that combines modern forms of association with a traditional communal orientation. It is taken from the words clique or clan and sect. Diffracted Society: Denotes a social system where each structure performs a limited number of functions. It stands for a highly developed society in which all structures are highly specific and new structures are both differentiated and integrated.

This represents developed societies. Fused Society: A social system where all structures are highly diffused and each structure performs a large number of functions. Riggs coined this term to represent an undeveloped traditional society. Grape vine: The informal communication network within the organisation.

Job-enlargement and Job-enrichment: Job enlargement is an attempt to make job more interesting and satisfying by increasing the variety of jobs to be performed by the employees.

Job-enrichment, on the other hand, means an attempt to make routine jobs more meaningful by providing more challenging tasks, responsibility and autonomy. If job-enlargement is considered as horizontal expansion activity, job-enrichment can be considered as vertical expansion of responsibility and autonomy.

O and M: It is a management aid or technique to improve administrative efficiency. A conscious effort to mislead people by persuading them to believe false information as true and correct. The income tax collected by the Centre is necessarily distributed between the Centre and the States. However, the Centre retains the surcharge on income tax and it is not distributed among the States.

Unlike the income tax, it is not mandatory on the Central Government to distribute Excise duty. The High Courts shall exercise Writ Jurisdiction for the enforcement of Fundamental rights and for any other purpose also. But Supreme Court can exercise its Writ jurisdiction only for the purpose of enforcing the Fundamental rights.

Thus the Writ jurisdiction of High courts is wider than that of the Supreme Court. He shall however exercise his vote, except in the case of tie. All disputes among States arising out of any treaty, agreement etc entered upon before the commencement of the Constitution are outside the original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.

The President not by the Supreme Court on the basis of advisory opinion of the Supreme Court decides these disputes. While getting approval for the Presidential Ordinance, if the two Houses Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha are summoned on different dates, the period of six weeks shall be counted from the latter date.

The Right to property deleted from the Fundamental rights by the 44th Amendment , and converted into an ordinary legal right under Article A.

They are 1. Forests 3. Population control and Family Planning 4. Education, including medical and technical, and 5. Weights and measures except establishment of Standards. Unlike a federation, India is a Union of States. This means two things: Indian Union is not a result of agreement of independent and sovereign states whereas Federation is a result of such agreement.

The States do not have right to secede from the Union whereas in the case of Federation, the constituent units shall have the right to secede from the Federation. But it is commonly believed that it was.

Generally it prevails in the tribal communities. While counting the disqualification period of 60 days for MPs, that period will not be counted when the House was adjourned for more than 4 days consecutively.

Under Article 87 of the Constitution, the Presidential Address to both the Houses of Parliament assembled together is mandatory at the commencement of the first session of each year or after every general election.

Gorwala reported that corruption is prevalent in India, while Appleby reported that corruption is not so rampant as alleged. They, however, work with the State Governments. Among these, the Government accepted only one, Medical Science. This is mainly to protect a candidate who had done well in the written examination but lacks high level of oral communication ability.

The reason is, Psychological tests, if not administered accurately or not updated, might give misleading scores. Introduction of Lectures might give the city-bred candidate a disproportionately large score.

The Government did not accept this recommendation. An IAS Officer working in Tamilnadu draws the same salary and enjoys the same privileges as his counterpart in Bihar or in any other State. This provision was deleted because it violated the fundamental right to equality. When the Parliament is transacting business according to the Schedule fixed for the day, a Member may raise a Point of Order if the proceedings do not follow the normal rules.

An operation relating to delimitation of territorial constituencies is gerrymandering. The authority empowered to demarcate the boundary of the constituencies sometimes changes the areas in a constituency in order to facilitate the victory of the candidate s of a particular political party.

Rather, it means reducing the inequalities between rich and poor. The members of the Commission were K. Panikkar and H. Sometimes, there is no Cabinet Minister in a ministry and the ministers of state hold independent charge of a department.

However, similar provision of joint sitting is not provided in the Constitution in the case of disagreement between Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council in the State.

The same person held both the posts. But they were not given the right to ask supplementary questions. This may be termed as the beginning of parliamentary system in India.

This was introduced in by the 25th Amendment enacted with respect to the directive principles contained in Article 39 and subsequently expanded in by the 42nd Amendment to include all Directive principles.

Office of the UPSC does not mean the Chairman and the members, but it means the other official staff who are in the administration. In case of non-acceptance by the Government, the matter has to be referred to the Appointments committee of the parliament.

However, the Administrative Staff College at Hyderabad caters to the private sector also. Sunset Legislation is a formal process of policy review for eliminating the undesired, outdated, redundant and irrelevant programmes.

The difference between the Revenue Budget and Capital Budget is that the former is financed out of the current revenue while the latter is financed out of the savings and borrowings. Four organs are involved in the preparation of Budget.

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