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The book starts by building a clone of the classical snake game where you will By the end of the book, you will be an expert in using the SFML library to its full. Premium eBook free for Geeks. Contribute to arpitjindal97/technology_books development by creating an account on GitHub. SFML Game Development By Example. Copyright © Packt Publishing . Did you know that Packt offers eBook versions of every book published, with PDF .

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The first thing we did here is declare and initialize our window instance of type RenderWindow. In this case, we used its constructor, however it is possible to leave it blank and utilize its create method later on by passing in the exact same arguments, of which it can take as little as two: The video mode's constructor takes two arguments: There is a third optional argument that sets color depth in bits per pixel.

SFML Game Development by Example

It defaults to 32, which is more than enough for good rendering fitting our purposes, so let's not lose sleep over that now. After the instance of our window is created, we enter a while loop that utilizes one of our window methods to check if it's still open, isOpen. This effectively creates our game loop, which is a central piece of all of our code. The purpose of a game loop is to check for events and input, update our game world between frames, which means moving the player, enemies, checking for changes, and so on, and finally draw everything on the screen.

This process needs to be repeated many times a second until the window is closed. The amount of times varies from application to application, sometimes going as high as thousands of iterations per second. Chapter 2, Give It Some Structure - Building the Game Framework will cover managing and capping the frame rate of our applications as well as making the game run at constant speeds.

Most applications need to have a way to check if a window has been closed, resized, or moved. That's where event processing comes in. SFML provides an event class that we can use to store our event information. During each iteration of our game loop, we need to check for the events that took place by utilizing the pollEvent method of our window instance and process them.

In this case, we're only interested in the event that gets dispatched when a mouse clicks on the close window button.


We can check if the public member type of class Event matches the proper enumeration member, in this case it's sf:: If it does, we can call the close method of our window instance and our program will terminate.

Events must be processed in all SFML applications. Without the event loop polling events, the window will become unresponsive, since it not only provides the event information to the user, but also gives the window itself a way to handle its internal events as well, which is a necessity for it to react to being moved or resized.

After all of that is done, it's necessary to clear the window from the previous iteration.

Failing to do so would result in everything we draw on it stacking and creating a mess. Imagine the screen is a whiteboard and you want to draw something new on it after someone else already scribbled all over it. Instead of grabbing the eraser, however, we need to call the clear method of our window instance, which takes a sf:: Color data type as an argument and defaults to the color black if an argument isn't provided.

The screen can be cleared to any of its enumerated colors that the sf:: Color class provides as static members or we can pass an instance of sf:: Color, which has a constructor that takes unsigned integer values for individual color channels: The latter gives us a way to explicitly specify the color of our desired range, like so: Color 0,0,0, ;.

Finally, we call the window. This utilizes a technique known as double buffering, which is standard in games nowadays. Basically, anything that is drawn isn't drawn on the screen instantly, but instead to a hidden buffer which then gets copied to our window once display is called.

Double buffering is used to prevent graphical artifacts, such as tearing, which occurs due to video card drivers pulling from the frame buffer while it's still being written to, resulting in a partially drawn image being displayed. Calling the display method is mandatory and cannot be avoided, otherwise the window will show up as a static square with no changes taking place.

Remember to include SFML library. Upon compilation and execution of the code, we will find ourselves with a blank console window and a black x px window sitting over it, fewer than 20 lines of code, and an open window. Not very exciting, but it's still better than E. Let's draw something on the screen! Basics of SFML drawing Much like in kindergarten, we will start with basic shapes and make our way up to more complex types.

Let's work on rendering a rectangle shape by first declaring it and setting it up: RectangleShape rectangle sf:: Vector2f Red ; rectangle. RectangleShape is a derived class of sf:: Shape that inherits from sf:: Drawable, which is an abstract base class that all entities must inherit from. It also inherits from sf:: Transformable, which provides all the necessary functionality in order to move, scale, and rotate an entity.

This relationship allows our rectangle to be transformed, as well as rendered to the screen. In its constructor, we've introduced a new data type: It's essentially just a struct of two floats, x and y, that represent a point in a two-dimensional universe, not to be confused with the std:: SFML provides a few other vector types for integers and unsigned integers: Vector2i and sf:: The actual sf:: Vector2 class is templated, so any primitive data type can be used with it like so: The rectangle constructor takes a single argument of sf:: Vector2f which represents the size of the rectangle in pixels and is optional.

On the second line, we set the fill color of the rectangle by providing one of SFML's predefined colors this time. Lastly, we set the position of our shape by calling the setPosition method and passing its position in pixels alongside the x and y axis, which in this case is the centre of our window. There is only one more thing missing until we can draw the rectangle: This line goes right before we call window. Let's run our revised application and take a look at the result:. Now we have a red square drawn on the screen, but it's not quite centered.

This is because the default origin of any sf:: Transformable, which is just a 2D point that represents the global position of the object, is at the local coordinates 0,0 , which is the top left corner.

In this case, it means that the top left corner of this rectangle is set to the position of the screen centre. That can easily be resolved by calling the setOrigin method and passing in the desired local coordinates of our shape that will represent the new origin, which we want to be right in the middle: If the size of a shape is unknown for whatever reason, the rectangle class provides a nice method getSize, which returns a float vector containing the size: Now our shape is sitting happily in the very middle of the black screen.

The entire segment of code that makes this possible looks a little something like this: VideoMode , , "Rendering the rectangle. Black ; window. Drawing images in SFML In order to draw an image on screen, we need to become familiar with two classes: Texture and sf:: A texture is essentially just an image that lives on the graphics card for the purpose of making it fast to draw.

Any given picture on your hard drive can be turned into a texture by loading it: Texture texture; if! The loadFromFile method returns a Boolean value, which serves as a simple way of handling loading errors, such as the file not being found.

If you have a console window open along with your SFML window, you will notice some information being printed out in case the texture loading did fail: Failed to load image "filename.

Unable to open file Unless a full path is specified in the loadFromFile method, it will be interpreted as relative to the working directory. It's important to note that while the working directory is usually the same as the executable's when launching it by itself, compiling and running your application in an IDE Microsoft Visual Studio in our case will often set it to the project directory instead of the debug or release folders.

Make sure to put the resources you're trying to load in the same directory where your. It's also possible to load your textures from memory, custom input streams, or sf:: Image utility classes, which help store and manipulate image data as raw pixels, which will be covered more broadly in later chapters. What is a sprite? A sprite, much like the sf:: Shape derivatives we've worked with so far, is a sf:: Drawable object, which in this case represents a sf:: Texture and also supports a list of transformations, both physical and graphical.

Think of it as a simple rectangle with a texture applied to it:. Sprite provides the means of rendering a texture, or a part of it, on screen, as well as means of transforming it, which makes the sprite dependent on the use of textures. Since sf:: Texture isn't a lightweight object, sf:: Sprite comes in for performance reasons to use the pixel data of a texture it's bound to, which means that as long as a sprite is using the texture it's bound to, the texture has to be alive in memory and can only be de-allocated once it's no longer being used.

After we have our texture set up, it's really easy to set up the sprite and draw it: Sprite sprite texture ; It's optional to pass the texture by reference to the sprite constructor. The texture it's bound to can be changed at any time by using the setTexture method: Sprite, just like sf:: Shape, inherits from sf:: Transformable, we have access to the same methods of manipulating and obtaining origin, position, scale, and rotation.

It's time to apply all the knowledge we've gained so far and write a basic application that utilizes it: VideoMode , , "Bouncing mushroom. Texture mushroomTexture; mushroomTexture. Sprite mushroom mushroomTexture ; sf:: Vector2f increment 0. Its Alive! The code above will produce a sprite bouncing around the window, reversing in direction every time it hits the window boundaries. Error checking for loading the texture is omitted in this case in order to keep the code shorter. The two if statements after the event handling portion in the main loop are responsible for checking the current position of our sprite and updating the direction of the increment value represented by a plus or minus sign, since you can only go towards the positive or negative end on a single axis.

Remember that the origin of a shape by default is its top-left corner, as shown here:. Because of this, we must either compensate for the entire width and height of a shape when checking if it's out-of-bounds on the bottom or the right side, or make sure its origin is in the middle. In this case, we do the latter and either add or subtract half of the texture's size from the mushroom's position to check if it is still within our desired space.

If it's not, simply invert the sign of the increment float vector on the axis that is outside the screen and voila! We have bouncing! We will also be implementing networking features that will allow other players to join and play together. Raimondas Pupius is a game development enthusiast from Lithuania, currently working towards getting a degree in software engineering, as well as a few projects of his own.

The ultimate dream is, of course, starting a company of his own and making professional games for a living. His other interests include web development, which was his primary interest before game development, music and linguistics. Sign up to our emails for regular updates, bespoke offers, exclusive discounts and great free content. Log in. My Account. Log in to your account. Not yet a member? Register for an account and access leading-edge content on emerging technologies.

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