Biography Gandhi Biography Pdf


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Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on October 2, , in Porbandar, India, a seacoast town in the Kathiawar Peninsula north of Bombay, India. India), Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born third son to a wealthy Hindu family. India had been a British crown colony for over a decade when Gandhi was born. In. . A concise, accessible biography by a noted historian. 5. Mahatma Gandhi's autobiography, An Autobiography or The Story of My Experiment with Truth. Read online, download PDF version or read abridged version.

Gandhi Biography Pdf

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GANDHI – A Biography for children and beginners Page 3. FOREWORD. Ravindra Varma is a learned scholar, who has been running the. This is the first pictorial biography of Gandhi in which the narrative-concise, fascinating flash-back on the life of Mahatma Gandhi and the struggle for Indian. Copies It is not my purpose to attempt a real autobiography or story of my life. Gandhiji's Autobiography* and his Satyagraha in South Africa+, as.

Published by: Mahatma Gandhi's autobiography Sathiya Sodhani is one book which guides you as to what is right and wrong. Most importantly, the author should have experienced all these. The original was in Gujarati, and was later translated into English and other Indian languages. The book is in five parts, beginning with his birth, up until the year In the last chapter he writes, "My life from this point onward has been so public that there is hardly anything about it that people do not know I live and move and have my being in pursuit of this goal.

He stated this practice can be eradicated, Hinduism is flexible to allow this, and a concerted effort is needed to persuade it is wrong and by all to eradicate it. According to Christophe Jaffrelot, while Gandhi considered untouchability to be wrong and evil, he believed that caste or class are based neither on inequality nor on inferiority.

Every individual regardless of his or her background, stated Gandhi, has a right to choose who they welcome into their home, who they befriend and who they spend time with.

In , Gandhi began a new campaign to improve the lives of the untouchables, whom he started referring to as Harijans or "the children of god". Ambedkar and his allies felt Gandhi was being paternalistic and was undermining Dalit political rights. Ambedkar described him as "devious and untrustworthy".

In , Ambedkar announced his intentions to leave Hinduism and join Buddhism. These views contrasted with those of Ambedkar. Gandhi and his colleagues continued to consult Ambedkar, keeping him influential. Ambedkar worked with other Congress leaders through the s, wrote large parts of India's constitution in the late s, and converted to Buddhism in However, Gandhi's approach to untouchability was different from Ambedkar's, championing fusion, choice and free intermixing.

Ambedkar envisioned each segment of society maintaining its identity group, and each group then separately advancing the "politics of equality".

The criticism of Gandhi by Ambedkar continued to influence the Dalit movement past Gandhi's death. According to Arthur Herman, Ambedkar's hate for Gandhi and Gandhi's ideas was so strong that after he heard the news of Gandhi's assassination, remarked after a momentary silence a sense of regret and then "my real enemy is gone; thank goodness the eclipse is over now".

Gandhi rejected the colonial Western format of education system. He stated that it led to disdain for manual work, generally created an elite administrative bureaucracy. Gandhi favoured an education system with far greater emphasis on learning skills in practical and useful work, one that included physical, mental and spiritual studies.

His methodology sought to treat all professions equal and pay everyone the same. Gandhi called his ideas Nai Talim literally, 'new education'. He believed that the Western style education violated and destroyed the indigenous cultures. A different basic education model, he believed, would lead to better self awareness, prepare people to treat all work equally respectable and valued, and lead to a society with less social diseases.

Nai Talim evolved out of his experiences at the Tolstoy Farm in South Africa, and Gandhi attempted to formulate the new system at the Sevagram ashram after In his autobiography, Gandhi wrote that he believed every Hindu boy and girl must learn Sanskrit because its historic and spiritual texts are in that language.

Gandhi believed that swaraj not only can be attained with non-violence, it can be run with non-violence. A military is unnecessary, because any aggressor can be thrown out using the method of non-violent non-co-operation. While military is unnecessary in a nation organised under swaraj principle, Gandhi added that a police force is necessary given human nature.

However, the state would limit the use of weapons by the police to the minimum, aiming for their use as a restraining force. According to Gandhi, a non-violent state is like an "ordered anarchy".

On returning from South Africa, when Gandhi received a letter asking for his participation in writing a world charter for human rights, he responded saying, "in my experience, it is far more important to have a charter for human duties.

Swaraj to Gandhi did not mean transferring colonial era British power brokering system, favours-driven, bureaucratic, class exploitative structure and mindset into Indian hands. He warned such a transfer would still be English rule, just without the Englishman. Democracy meant settling disputes in a nonviolent manner; it required freedom of thought and expression.

For Gandhi, democracy was a way of life. Some scholars state Gandhi supported a religiously diverse India, [] while others state that the Muslim leaders who championed the partition and creation of a separate Muslim Pakistan considered Gandhi to be Hindu nationalist or revivalist. In an interview with C. Andrews, Gandhi stated that if we believe all religions teach the same message of love and peace between all human beings, then there is neither any rationale nor need for proselytisation or attempts to convert people from one religion to another.

In Gandhi's view, those who attempt to convert a Hindu, "they must harbour in their breasts the belief that Hinduism is an error" and that their own religion is "the only true religion".

He stated that spiritual studies must encourage "a Hindu to become a better Hindu, a Mussalman to become a better Mussalman, and a Christian a better Christian. According to Gandhi, religion is not about what a man believes, it is about how a man lives, how he relates to other people, his conduct towards others, and one's relationship to one's conception of god.

Gandhi believed in sarvodaya economic model, which literally means "welfare, upliftment of all". To both, according to Bhatt, removing poverty and unemployment were the objective, but the Gandhian economic and development approach preferred adapting technology and infrastructure to suit the local situation, in contrast to Nehru's large scale, socialised state owned enterprises.

To Gandhi, the economic philosophy that aims at "greatest good for the greatest number" was fundamentally flawed, and his alternative proposal sarvodaya set its aim at the "greatest good for all".

He believed that the best economic system not only cared to lift the "poor, less skilled, of impoverished background" but also empowered to lift the "rich, highly skilled, of capital means and landlords". Violence against any human being, born poor or rich, is wrong, believed Gandhi.

Gandhi challenged Nehru and the modernizers in the late s who called for rapid industrialisation on the Soviet model; Gandhi denounced that as dehumanising and contrary to the needs of the villages where the great majority of the people lived.

Gandhi called for ending poverty through improved agriculture and small-scale cottage rural industries. Gandhi refused to endorse the view that economic forces are best understood as "antagonistic class interests". Further, believed Gandhi, in a free nation, victims exist only when they co-operate with their oppressor, and an economic and political system that offered increasing alternatives gave power of choice to the poorest man.

While disagreeing with Nehru about the socialist economic model, Gandhi also critiqued capitalism that was driven by endless wants and a materialistic view of man. This, he believed, created a vicious vested system of materialism at the cost of other human needs such as spirituality and social relationships.

He believed that a better economic system is one which does not impoverish one's culture and spiritual pursuits. Gandhism designates the ideas and principles Gandhi promoted; of central importance is nonviolent resistance. A Gandhian can mean either an individual who follows, or a specific philosophy which is attributed to, Gandhism. Sankhdher argues that Gandhism is not a systematic position in metaphysics or in political philosophy. Rather, it is a political creed, an economic doctrine, a religious outlook, a moral precept, and especially, a humanitarian world view.

It is an effort not to systematise wisdom but to transform society and is based on an undying faith in the goodness of human nature. There is no such thing as "Gandhism", and I do not want to leave any sect after me. I do not claim to have originated any new principle or doctrine. I have simply tried in my own way to apply the eternal truths to our daily life and problems The opinions I have formed and the conclusions I have arrived at are not final. I may change them tomorrow. I have nothing new to teach the world.

Truth and nonviolence are as old as the hills. Gandhi was a prolific writer. One of Gandhi's earliest publications, Hind Swaraj , published in Gujarati in , became "the intellectual blueprint" for India's independence movement. The book was translated into English the next year, with a copyright legend that read "No Rights Reserved".

Later, Navajivan was also published in Hindi. In addition, he wrote letters almost every day to individuals and newspapers. He also wrote extensively on vegetarianism, diet and health, religion, social reforms, etc. Gandhi usually wrote in Gujarati, though he also revised the Hindi and English translations of his books. Gandhi's complete works were published by the Indian government under the name The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi in the s.

The writings comprise about 50, pages published in about a hundred volumes. In , a revised edition of the complete works sparked a controversy, as it contained a large number of errors and omissions. Gandhi influenced important leaders and political movements. In his early years, the former President of South Africa Nelson Mandela was a follower of the nonviolent resistance philosophy of Gandhi. This legacy connects him to Nelson Mandela Gandhi's life and teachings inspired many who specifically referred to Gandhi as their mentor or who dedicated their lives to spreading Gandhi's ideas.

In , notable European physicist Albert Einstein exchanged written letters with Gandhi, and called him "a role model for the generations to come" in a letter writing about him. Mahatma Gandhi's life achievement stands unique in political history.

He has invented a completely new and humane means for the liberation war of an oppressed country, and practised it with greatest energy and devotion. The moral influence he had on the consciously thinking human being of the entire civilised world will probably be much more lasting than it seems in our time with its overestimation of brutal violent forces. Because lasting will only be the work of such statesmen who wake up and strengthen the moral power of their people through their example and educational works.

We may all be happy and grateful that destiny gifted us with such an enlightened contemporary, a role model for the generations to come. Generations to come will scarce believe that such a one as this walked the earth in flesh and blood. Lanza del Vasto went to India in intending to live with Gandhi; he later returned to Europe to spread Gandhi's philosophy and founded the Community of the Ark in modelled after Gandhi's ashrams.

Madeleine Slade known as "Mirabehn" was the daughter of a British admiral who spent much of her adult life in India as a devotee of Gandhi. In addition, the British musician John Lennon referred to Gandhi when discussing his views on nonviolence. I am mindful that I might not be standing before you today, as President of the United States, had it not been for Gandhi and the message he shared with America and the world.

Obama in September said that his biggest inspiration came from Gandhi. His reply was in response to the question 'Who was the one person, dead or live, that you would choose to dine with? He continued that "He's somebody I find a lot of inspiration in.

He inspired Dr. King with his message of nonviolence. He ended up doing so much and changed the world just by the power of his ethics. On the basis of a petition, a statue of Gandhi at the University of Ghana was removed on 15 December , because it was viewed by the petitioners as "an homage to a racist". Time magazine named Gandhi the Man of the Year in The University of Nagpur awarded him an LL. The Government of India awarded the annual Gandhi Peace Prize to distinguished social workers, world leaders and citizens.

Nelson Mandela , the leader of South Africa's struggle to eradicate racial discrimination and segregation, was a prominent non-Indian recipient. In , Time magazine named Gandhi as one of the top 25 political icons of all time. Gandhi did not receive the Nobel Peace Prize , although he was nominated five times between and , including the first-ever nomination by the American Friends Service Committee , [] though he made the short list only twice, in and That year, the committee chose not to award the peace prize stating that "there was no suitable living candidate" and later research shows that the possibility of awarding the prize posthumously to Gandhi was discussed and that the reference to no suitable living candidate was to Gandhi.

Gandhi could do without the Nobel Peace prize, whether Nobel committee can do without Gandhi is the question". Indians widely describe Gandhi as the father of the nation.

Kasturba Gandhi

A 5 hour 9 minute long biographical documentary film, [] Mahatma: It was based on the biography by Louis Fischer. Jahnu Barua's Maine Gandhi Ko Nahin Mara I did not kill Gandhi , places contemporary society as a backdrop with its vanishing memory of Gandhi's values as a metaphor for the senile forgetfulness of the protagonist of his film, [] writes Vinay Lal.

Anti-Gandhi themes have also been showcased through films and plays. The film, Gandhi, My Father was inspired on the same theme. Several biographers have undertaken the task of describing Gandhi's life. Among them are D. Tendulkar with his Mahatma.

The biography, Great Soul: India, with its rapid economic modernisation and urbanisation, has rejected Gandhi's economics [] but accepted much of his politics and continues to revere his memory. Reporter Jim Yardley notes that, "modern India is hardly a Gandhian nation, if it ever was one.

His vision of a village-dominated economy was shunted aside during his lifetime as rural romanticism, and his call for a national ethos of personal austerity and nonviolence has proved antithetical to the goals of an aspiring economic and military power. Gandhi's birthday, 2 October, is a national holiday in India , Gandhi Jayanti.

Gandhi's image also appears on paper currency of all denominations issued by Reserve Bank of India , except for the one rupee note. There are three temples in India dedicated to Gandhi. Gandhi's children and grandchildren live in India and other countries. Grandson Rajmohan Gandhi is a Professor in Illinois and an author of Gandhi's biography titled "Mohandas" [] , while another, Tarun Gandhi, has authored several authoritative books on his grandfather. Another grandson, Kanu Ramdas Gandhi the son of Gandhi's third son Ramdas , was found living in an old age home in Delhi despite having taught earlier in the United States.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Gandhi disambiguation. Pre-eminent leader of Indian nationalism during British-ruled India. Lawyer Politician Activist Writer. Kasturbai Gandhi m. Harilal Manilal Ramdas Devdas. Karamchand Gandhi father Putlibai Gandhi mother. See also: Indian independence movement. The role of India in World War I.

Main article: Champaran Satyagraha. Kheda Satyagraha. Non-co-operation movement. Salt Satyagraha. Play media. Quit India Movement. Indian independence movement and Partition of India. Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi. List of fasts undertaken by Mahatma Gandhi. Nai Talim. Gandhian economics. Shaw; Timothy J. Demy War and Religion: An Encyclopedia of Faith and Conflict. Gandhiserve foundation Berlin. Retrieved 4 March The Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 12 October Retrieved 31 August Addresses in Durban and Verulam referred to Gandhi as a 'Mahatma', 'great soul'.

He was seen as a great soul because he had taken up the poor's cause. The whites too said good things about Gandhi, who predicted a future for the Empire if it respected justice. An Autobiography. Bodley Head. Reweaving the Web of Life: Feminism and Nonviolence. New Society Publishers. Encountering God: A Spiritual Journey from Bozeman to Banaras.

Beacon Press. Gleanings Gathered at Bapu's Feet. Navjivan publications. The Great Partition: The Making of India and Pakistan. Yale University Press. Retrieved 1 September By the late s, the League and the Congress had impressed in the British their own visions of a free future for Indian people. They heard about it on the radio, from relations and friends, by reading newspapers and, later, through government pamphlets.

Among a population of almost four hundred million, where the vast majority lived in the countryside, For some, the butchery and forced relocation of the summer months of may have been the first they know about the creation of the two new states rising from the fragmentary and terminally weakened British empire in India. His decision was made suddenly, though after considerable thought — he gave no hint of it even to Nehru and Patel who were with him shortly before he announced his intention at a prayer-meeting on 12 January He said he would fast until communal peace was restored, real peace rather than the calm of a dead city imposed by police and troops.

Patel and the government took the fast partly as condemnation of their decision to withhold a considerable cash sum still outstanding to Pakistan as a result of the allocation of undivided India's assets, because the hostilities that had broken out in Kashmir; But even when the government agreed to pay out the cash, Gandhi would not break his fast: Encyclopedia of Hinduism.

The name Gandhi means "grocer", although Mohandas's father and grandfather were politicians not grocers. Gandhi, Autobiography chapter 1 Dover edition, p. Identity and Religion: Foundations of anti-Islamism in India. Mahatma; life of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. L Lawyer to Mahatma: Life, Work and Transformation of M. The Ways and Power of Love: Templeton Foundation Press.

The Traditional Roots of Charisma. University of Chicago Press. A Spiritual Biography. John Zavos; et al. Public Hinduisms. SAGE Publications. Gandhi before India. Vintage Books. Gandhi, his life and message for the world.

Mahatma Gandhi. Allied Publishers. Orissa Review January Archived PDF from the original on 1 January Retrieved 23 February Chapter "Preparation for England". Gandhi as Disciple and Mentor.

Cambridge University Press. In Roxanne Reid ed. New History of South Africa 1st ed. The Journal of Modern African Studies. Chapter "More Hardships". Dhiman Gandhi and Leadership: New Horizons in Exemplary Leadership. Chapter "Some Experiences". Chapter "What it is to be a coolie". Sleeping with Strangers: A Vagabond's Journey Tramping the Globe. Other Places Publishing.

Gandhian Satyagraha: An Analytical And Critical Approach.

Concept Publishing Company. The Literature Network. Retrieved 12 February Mathai; M. John; Siby K.

Mahatma Gandhi

Joseph eds. Concept, pp. DiSalvo Gandhi, Attorney at Law: The Man before the Mahatma. Infobase Publishing. Archived from the original on 21 October Retrieved 5 October The South African Gandhi: Stretcher-Bearer of Empire.

Stanford University Press. Gandhi went from a racist young man to a racist middle-aged man". Minorities and the State in Africa. Cambria Press. Retrieved 1 January Retrieved March South African Historical Journal. Archived from the original on 2 May Retrieved 20 January Political Science Quarterly. A History of Modern India, — Anthem Press. Based on public domain volumes. Day-to-day with Gandhi: Hemantkumar Nilkanth translation.

Sarva Seva Sangh Prakashan. Archived from the original on 3 June Archived 15 October at the Wayback Machine Chapter " Appeal for enlistment", Nadiad, 22 June Archived 15 October at the Wayback Machine "Chapter 8. Letter to J. Maffey", Nadiad, 30 April Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society.

Indian National Congress website. All India Congress Committee.

Kasturba Gandhi - Wikipedia

Archived from the original on 6 December Retrieved 25 February Gandhi's Rise to Power: Indian Politics — The First World War. Green; Nicholas Szechenyi A Global History of the Twentieth Century: Legacies and Lessons from Six National Perspectives.

Paine Case Studies and Comparisons. Jinnah vs. They reveal Tagore's belief that Gandhi had committed the Indian political nation to a cause that was mistakenly anti-Western and fundamentally negative"; Kham, Aqeeluzzafar Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society. Psychology Press.

Ahmed Jinnah, Pakistan and Islamic Identity: The Search for Saladin. Archived from the original on 30 May India's Road to Nationhood: A Political History of the Subcontinent. Modern India: Oxford U. Dekar Martin Luther King, Jr.

Wipf and Stock. Archived from the original on 1 January Gandhi's Passion: The Life and Legacy of Mahatma Gandhi. Archived from the original on 19 February Navajivan Publishing House. Also available at Wikisource. Indian Politics and Society since Independence: Retrieved 4 April Sahitya Akademi. Newsinger The Blood Never Dried.

Bookmarks Publications Ltd. Gandhi and Gandhi and the Mass Movement. New Delhi. Fischer Gandhi and the Mass Movement. Indian Historical Review. Revolutions and Struggles for Justice in the 20th Century.

City University of New York Press. Women in the Indian National Movement: Unseen Faces and Unheard Voices, — Nationalist Intelligentsia and the Mobilization of Peasantry".

Mahatma Gandhi: Nonviolent Power in Action. Columbia University Press. Hogg Encyclopedia of Group Processes and Intergroup Relations.

Random House. Archived from the original on 13 September Empire, Politics and the Creation of the India Act: Last Act of the Raj. The Man, His People, and the Empire. University of California Press. Archived from the original on 22 February Prisoner of Hope. Archived from the original on 7 March Dirks Castes of Mind: Colonialism and the Making of Modern India.

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Jawaharlal Nehru, A Biography , p. Allied Publishers Limited. Leadership Struggle in Congress in the s". Modern Asian Studies. Orissa Review. Archived from the original PDF on 24 December Retrieved 12 April India's Struggle for Independence. Penguin Books. A Fine Family. The Mahatma and mother India: Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru: Publishing Corporation.

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Great Soul: Mahatma Gandhi and His Struggle with India. Random House Digital, Inc. Empirical Foundations of Psychology. Almanac of World Crime. New York: Gandhi in His Time and Ours: The Global Legacy of His Ideas. The UnGandhian Gandhi: The Life and Afterlife of the Mahatma. Why I assassinated Mahatma Gandhi? Surya Bharti Parkashan Reprint: The Gandhi Reader: A Sourcebook of His Life and Writings. Grove Press. Archived from the original on 18 September The Indian Express.

Retrieved 19 January Gandhi's assassination as a critical moment in the consolidation of the Nehruvian state". Time Inc. The Guardian. Archived from the original on 1 September Retrieved 14 January Gandhi meets primetime: University of Illinois Press. Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 5 October The Politics of Gandhi's Last Words".

Archived from the original on 4 June Gandhi and Non-Violence. State University of New York Press. The sheer vagueness and contradictions recurrent throughout his writing made it easier to accept him as a saint than to fathom the challenge posed by his demanding beliefs. Gandhi saw no harm in self-contradictions: The Cambridge Companion to Gandhi. Stuart Brown; et al. Biographical Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Philosophers.

Vaishnavism , Jainism and Advaita Vedanta. Jordens Gandhi's Religion: A Homespun Shawl. Palgrave Macmillan. Long Rita Sherma and Arvind Sharma ed. Hermeneutics and Hindu Thought: Toward a Fusion of Horizons.

Hinduism According to Gandhi: Thoughts, Writings and Critical Interpretation. Orient Paperbacks. Reading Gandhi. Gandhi, —". Asian Profile. Parekh Sterling Publishing. Studies in Religion: History and Theory.

An introduction to Swaminarayan Hinduism. Patrick Geddes: The Heritage of Kathiawad and Gujarat". Journal of Asian Studies. Srinivasa Murthy, ed. Mahatma Gandhi and Leo Tolstoy: Srinivasa, ed. Letters PDF. Long Beach, California: Long Beach Publications. Archived PDF from the original on 17 September The origins of nonviolence: Tolstoy and Gandhi in their historical settings. Pennsylvania State University Press.

Retrieved 17 January Journal of Indian History. An Autobiography Beacon Press ed. Gandhi as Disciple and Mentor 3 ed. An Autobiography: The Story of My Experiments with Truth. Retrieved 23 November Archived from the original on 13 May Retrieved 3 June The life of Mahatma Gandhi. Davis The "Bhagavad Gita": A Biography.

Gandhi and Nationalism: The Path to Indian Independence. All Men Are Brothers. Bloomsbury Academic. David M. Malone; et al. Gandhi Wields the Weapon of Moral Power: Three Case Histories. Bruce The Gandhian Synthesis". Gandhi's Philosophy and the Quest for Harmony.

Retrieved 13 January Gier The Virtue of Nonviolence: From Gautama to Gandhi. Women in India: A Social and Cultural History. The Law of Suffering". New Delhi: Archived PDF from the original on 28 January Gandhi's approach to conflict resolution. Retrieved 26 January Taras Liberal and Illiberal Nationalisms.

The Man who Divided India. Popular Prakashan. Ambedkar on the spatial features of untouchability". Contemporary South Asia. Political Theory. Gandhi and nonviolence. SUNY Press. Gandhi's Experiments With Truth: Lexington Books. Retrieved 9 May Themes in Indian History. FK Publications. Harold Coward ed. Indian Critiques of Gandhi. Kumaraswamy India's Israel Policy. Jews, Arabs and Imperial Interests.

Durham Anthropology Journal , Volume 16 2 , Journal of the History of Ideas. Bauman India and the Indianness of Christianity. Webster Hindu-Christian Dialogue: Perspectives and Encounters.

Motilal Banarsidass. Archived from the original on 17 March Sharpe Gandhi's Experiments with Truth: Essential Writings by and about Mahatma Gandhi. Studies in Comparative Philosophy. Anthem South Asian studies.

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Berkeley Hills. Young India. Navajivan Publishing. Published by: Mahatma Gandhi's autobiography Sathiya Sodhani is one book which guides you as to what is right and wrong. Most importantly, the author should have experienced all these. The original was in Gujarati, and was later translated into English and other Indian languages. The book is in five parts, beginning with his birth, up until the year In the last chapter he writes, "My life from this point onward has been so public that there is hardly anything about it that people do not know I live and move and have my being in pursuit of this goal.

Read an abridged version of Gandhi's Autobiography [Click here]. An immortal book and a legacy for ages to come. This book is an autobiography of Gandhi. This Autobiography is divided in five parts starting from his childhood days, his experience in South Africa where he experimented with the powerful weapon of Satyagraha and his transformation from Mohan to Mahatma, his various experiments on fundamental principles of Truth and God, till the year , after which his life was so public that he felt there was hardly anything to write about.

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