ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION BOOK
The Book Environmental Pollution, Is The Outcome Of Intensive Efforts Made By The Author For More Than Seven Years In Collection Of Materials, Their. 5 Environmental Pollution After reading this chapter, you will be conversant with: Definition, Causes, Effects and Control Measures of: Air pollution Water. This sets us up to look for the social story carried by concepts like 'pollution. that comes to environmental health science and policy from the shipping industry .
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Complex environmental problems are often reduced to an inappropriate level of simplicity. While this book does not seek to present a comprehensive scientific. Purchase Environmental Pollution and Control - 4th Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN , Links to databases for air and water quality, solid waste management, and environmental law and policy. Also helpful for topics such as.
Complex environmental problems are often reduced to an inappropriate level of simplicity. While this book does not seek to present a comprehensive scientific and technical coverage of all aspects of the subject matter, it makes the issues, ideas, and language of environmental engineering accessible and understandable to the nontechnical reader. Improvements introduced in the fourth edition include a complete rewrite of the chapters dealing with risk assessment and ethics, the introduction of new theories of radiation damage, inclusion of environmental disasters like Chernobyl and Bhopal, and general updating of all the content, specifically that on radioactive waste. Since this book was first published in , several generations of students have become environmentally aware and conscious of their responsibilities to the planet earth. Many of these environmental pioneers are now teaching in colleges and universities, and have in their classes students with the same sense of dedication and resolve that they themselves brought to the discipline.
Were we to stick with economic metaphors lending or borrowing comes to mind. I can see pros and cons to thinking this way. Borrowing has a built-in ethic, one that is popularly understood: What is borrowed must be returned, preferably in the same or better condition.
But nature-as-on-loan, as borrowed from the future, upholds similar assumptions that a nature is for human use, and b that it is owned, though not by us, by some yet-born generation. Both, she points out, derive from the same Greek root, oikos , meaning house.
So, economy is the management of the home, and ecology, its study. Yet, as concepts, they exist far from each other, and even made to seem at odds. It is instructive to think about why, given how much a healthy economy depends on a well-functioning ecosystem, and how much profit has depended on waste being relatively cheap, if not free, to offload.
But it is hard to resist the possibility that these houses of production bear some deeper connection to ecology — if only in metaphor. Returning to your question, can this metaphor be productively mined for how to design industry so that we may dwell and thrive and produce useful things, all within an ecological system?
The chemical and plastics industries feeds on the waste products of fossil fuel refinement, first coal tar, then oil, and increasingly the byproducts of gas extraction. And that end remains: All of this makes me think of story that the writer and chemist Primo Levi tells about trees. During World War Two, Levi was imprisoned at Auschwitz, and because of his training in chemistry, forced to work in the laboratories at the nearby BunaWorks, a massive industrial complex run by IG Farben that made synthetic rubber from coal-tar for the German Army.
There, Levi dreamt of trees. To him, trees were the original chemical factory. They inhaled carbon dioxide and exhaled oxygen, all the while absorbing light and reshuffling atoms of carbon. And really human handling of carbon accounts for a good portion of pollution and environmental problems today.
Climate change, plastics and persistent organic or carbon-based pollutants all share a common origin in the human relationship to carbon. This, too, is another point that Steingraber makes, in this case in her book Living Downstream, and it brings the conversation back around to trees. Think, she says, of climate change and poisoning of the biosphere by things like persistent organic pollutants , or POPs, and plastics as trunks of the same tree, a tree with roots in the fossil fuels underfoot.
Why did you choose this? Living Downstream is a beautifully rendered book, part science, part history, part memoir. It is a crash course in public health, and in adopting a public health perspective on cancer and pollution prevention.
Moved by its message, the filmmaker Chanda Chevannes even made Living Downstream into a documentary film of the same name. It was a pivotal book published at a pivotal moment. Public and scientific understanding of pollution was undergoing seismic shifts. The first edition came out in — the same decade scientists released the first consensus statement outlining a more nuanced understanding of the role environmental exposures played in biology, which is that chronic, everyday exposures appeared to be interfering with the hormone signalling systems that oversee metabolism, fertility, neurodevelopment and more.
The United Nations had also begun moving toward what would become the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Pollutants , an international treaty that works to move the most persistent, bio-accumulative and toxic pollutants out of production systems. The first pollutants listed to the Convention included dioxins and furans, PCBs, and a number of the highly chlorinated pesticides described by Rachel Carson in Silent Spring: Steingraber was uniquely posed to write on this topic.
She holds advanced degrees in both biology and English, and is a skilled scientist and a commanding writer, unparalleled in her ability to make complex environmental science accessible to a general audience. Like Carson, Steingraber, too, had battled cancer. It was in fact a disease that ran in her family.
Her answer: Living Downstream reads like an investigation into what role environmental factors like pollution play in the complex origins of cancers.
These are the books I most love.
Steingraber takes this history and rewrites it narratively, tying the surge in plastics and organic chemical production to WWII geopolitics and post-war economics. I appreciate and often study how she makes not just science, but also science history compelling for her readers.
The newly revised edition, published in , updates the science, which exploded between and then. Steingraber followed Living Downstream with two other books about foetal and child health, making an elegant trilogy of science and her experience of pregnancy and motherhood.
Somewhat tellingly, I read all three of these before going back and finally reading Carson again, who I found to be as relevant today as was when Silent Spring first appeared in print.
Why is this book significant and what is its continuing relevance given it was published nearly twenty years ago?
In Dumping in Dixie , Robert Bullard—a sociologist, and a towering figure in the field—documents the emergence of the US environmental justice movement, born from the Civil Rights movement, its networks, organisations, and framing.
Through the story of one community in particular, he explains how pollution and racism operate together, and through one another. In the late s, just after the US Congress had curbed the production of polychlorinated biphenyl , or PCB, and placed stricter rules around the handling of industrial waste, a small company illegally unloaded PCB-laced oils along state roads in North Carolina. Clean-up ensued, but then there was the problem of what to do with all that contaminated soil.
Where should it go?
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That somewhere, following the official selection process, was a community in rural Warren County, North Carolina called Afton—a majority African American region of the state and where nearly a quarter of residents lived in poverty. Here, it was determined, a special landfill would be constructed to receive the PCBs.
Residents resisted, laid their bodies in the road to block the trucks. These events are imperative to keep in living memory, and why this book also remains a must-read though first published in Warren County continues to organise around issues posed by the landfill that was eventually built.
Dumping in Dixie sparked a new genre of books, and a rich area of social scientific research to unpack the social, political and economic processes that underly how industrial facilities and landfills are cited, and why —time and again— transit corridors, and heavy industry and their wastes are put nearer poor communities, and communities of colour.
And though books bring much needed attention to these often-invisible issues, sadly, so do natural disasters. As a result of storm-related shut-downs and later restarts , factories there released pollutants in excess of their already problematic releases. Which brings me to one final point, which is that Dumping in Dixie raised up the twin legacies of pollution and the systems for handling it—how these systems beget harms of their own. Following the post-industry, post-remediation trail of pollution goes right to the heart of the dilemmas we are discussing.
Flooded Superfund and industrial sites are yet another striking example of the mobility and fluid legacy of pollution. Your third choice is Voices of Chernobyl: This is about a very different kind of pollution and one that we have not so far discussed. Nuclear radiation is often poorly understood, at least by many of us who are not specialists. The issues are complex, and it can sometimes seem as if we receive conflicting messages.
Moreover, plants and wild animals thrive in the area around Chernobyl now that is has largely been abandoned by people. What can we learn from Alexievich? What follows events like Chernobyl is a politics of measurement.
Who counts? What counts? Who does the counting? How are boundaries drawn for the purposes of counting and comparing? And what is discounted, or never counted at all? On the legacy of Chernobyl and radiation history, I keep tabs on the historian Kate Brown, reading whatever she writes. These gaps, silences, incongruences, and uncertainties are an important piece of what it means to live in this moment.
There is resilience and resolve and also radiation, and all of it makes up life there.
Radiation is one part of a bigger story, one mixed and muddled with other exposures, other experiences. But it is the lived experience that I want to focus on, which includes living the questions, the science, the debates over what to study and how to study it.
All of this makes up the social experience of a disaster, and of contamination and pollution. To sociologists, the experience of exposure matters as much as the biological exposure. It is an experience that may include being studied—what does that feel like? Or of living with uncertainty; being confused by conflicting reports or duelling experts; of warnings, and overturned warnings; and perhaps most relevant here, to how a government responds to pollution, and by its administration of pollution—how a government goes about the business of remediation, relief, redress and compensation.
These, too, have an effect and after-effects, too. It is the totality —and the diversity—of the lived experience that I want to highlight. It certainly widens what counts as harm. Alexievich is a journalist — a reporter — but she is also the recipient of a Nobel Prize for Literature. What does she achieve in Voices from Chernobyl? She crafted a series of intimate portraits based on hundreds of interviews.
Each is in a different voice, and each one is striking, and singularly significant, with visceral imagery that will long stay with you. Reading becomes immersive: The way disasters unfold against a perfect sky. The messiness of cleanup, and the sacrifices made by those doing it.
Environmental Pollution - S.M. Shafi - Google книги
The accounts build into a polyphonic chorus. Diverse, discordant. I once read a review, I think it was in the New York Times, how her vignettes accumulate as radioactive particles do. The experiences of Chernobyl, and the state, medical and scientific responses to Chernobyl, building, building, until finally enveloping you. The Slow Poisoning of the Arctic.
Think about the environmental issues facing the Arctic, and one thinks about warming, not the unseen accretion of pollution in its seemingly pristine environs and its dynamic food chain. Human activity moves it from place to place. Heavy metals like mercury and persistent organic pollutants, or POPs, as this class of pollutants is called, can also concentrate and move up the food chain.
Silent Snow describes the invisible build-up of industrial pollution, in the circumpolar North. It explores the history and science of how we came to understand this, and to realise impossible-to-see and harder-to-sense pollution was concentrating far from factories and heavy industry. Marla Cone, a journalist, argues this may be the greatest environmental injustice on Earth. Cone makes the case for how this influx of pollution infringes on human rights and on the sovereignty of indigenous communities for whom the Arctic has been home for generations.
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