CHE GUEVARA BIOGRAPHY IN TELUGU PDF
An alternative open source is available; see MediaWiki2LaTeX. For Help with downloading a Wikipedia page as a PDF, see Help:Download as PDF. Nov 9, Che Guevara was a prominent communist figure in the Cuban Revolution (– 59) who went on to become Biography courtesy of salelive.info Read a biography about the life of Che Guevara (Ernesto Guevara de la Serna). Discover why he became a left-wing hero, even after his death.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Portuguese|
|Genre:||Science & Research|
|ePub File Size:||28.63 MB|
|PDF File Size:||10.24 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Regsitration Required]|
Che Guevara - salelive.info - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free. Biography Of "The Icon of Revolution"-Che Guv era. Marx-Engels Communist Manifesto Telugu. Uploaded by. A champion of the working poor and oppressed, Che Guevara was a Marxist . , salelive.info (9 April . salelive.info (9 April ). Ernesto "Che" Guevara was an Argentine Marxist revolutionary, physician, author , guerrilla Video footage; Audio recording. 12 List of English- language works; 13 See also; 14 References; 15 Further reading; 16 External links.
Series Foreword Introduction: The History of a Legendary Revolutionary Timeline: Ches Continuing Inuence in Latin America. In response to high school and public library needs, Greenwood developed this distinguished series of full-length biographies specically for student use. Prepared by eld experts and professionals, these engaging biographies are tailored for high school students who need challenging yet accessible biographies. Ideal for secondary school assignments, the length, format and subject areas are designed to meet educators requirements and students interests. Greenwood biographies were chosen based on comprehensive feedback from librarians and educators.
He registered for military service as required when he was 18, but he was given a medical deferment from military service because of his asthma. As for his political orientation at this stage of his life, he was a progressive liberal who avoided afliation with any political organization Anderson: His political views were nationalist, anti-imperialist, and anti-American, but he was quite critical of the Argentine Communist Party and its youth organization at the university for their sectarianism intolerance of other political organizations and ideologies.
While he was not a Marxist, he did already have a special interest in Marxs writings and in socialist thought. At this stage of his life he was an engaging and intelligent nonconformistan oddball who most of his friends and acquaintances found difcult to categorize.
Since he was not quite 18 when the national election was held that elected Juan Pern to the presidency of Argentina in , he was not able to vote in this historic election, but like most other students of his generation, he did not support Pern. His views regarding Pern have been characterized as a-Peronism Castaeda: However, he reportedly told the maids who worked for his family that they should vote for Pern since his policies would help their class.
It is not clear what he thought of Argentinas popular female political gure during this periodthe beautiful blond radio actress Evita who was Perns controversial mistress until he married her a few months before his election to the presidency in During the years Ernesto was a university student, Eva Evita Duarte Pern became the darling of Argentinas popular classes because of her charismatic populist speeches and her highly publicized personal crusade for labor and womens rights EPHRF While her husband was president, she ran the Argentine federal governments ministries of labor and health; founded and led the Eva Pern Foundation, which provided charitable services to the poor especially to the elderly, women, and children ; and created and served as the president of the.
After her death from cancer in , Evitalike Che Guevara laterbecame a powerful icon in the political culture of Argentina and Latin America. However, there is no evidence there was ever any personal or political connection between these two historic gures.
After living in his deceased mothers apartment for a year, Ernestos father sold his mat plantation and gave the money to Celia to buy a modest home in Buenos Aires at the edge of the desirable Palermo district Anderson: However, to make ends meet, the older children had to nd jobs. Despite the now obvious separation between his parentshis father slept on the sofa in the living room of the new houseErnesto maintained his close and open relationship with both parents, his father fondly describing their relationship during this period as follows: We joked with one another as if we were the same age.
He teased me continuously. As soon as we found ourselves at the table in our house, he would goad me with arguments of a political character. Ernesto, who at that time was twenty years old, surpassed me in this area, and we argued constantly. Those who overheard us might have thought we were ghting. Not at all. Deep down there existed a true camaraderie between us. She presided over the household in Buenos Aires in much the same way she did in Crdoba and Alta Graciashe showed a complete disregard for social decorum and housekeeping but generously offered informal hospitality to all manner of guests.
There was very little furniture and few decorations in the house, books were everywhere, and the walls in the kitchen gave electrical shocks because of a chronic short circuit in the electrical wiring. Ernesto often went to his Aunt Beatrizs and deceased grandmothers apartment to study, and his father went there often to sleep, be-. Ernesto had a special relationship with his spinster aunt, who loved to mother him. She would prepare meals for him and, according to his father, his Aunt Beatriz didnt sleep while Ernesto studied; she always had his mat ready to prepare for him and accompanied him when he took a break, and she did this all with the greatest of affection quoted in Anderson: She was quite conservative and proper, so Ernesto loved to scandalize her with his ideas and stories but always in an affectionate and respectful manner.
According to a cousin who accompanied him frequently to his aunts apartment, Ernesto secretly seduced her maid without their aunt knowing anything about it Anderson: From this period of his life, there is a photograph of Ernesto with his classmates in one of the classrooms of the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Buenos Aires.
A careful examination of this photograph provides some clues to Ernestos character, state of mind, and his relationships at the time. In the photograph 28 white-coated students stand in three rows on different levels behind a naked cadaver with an open chest cavity on a metal table in the foreground. A few of the students are smiling at the camera and the rest have assumed a serious professional look, but in the third row is one student who is looking open-eyed at the camera with a broad joking smile it is Ernesto.
All the men are wearing ties, except for Ernesto, who is wearing a white shirtprobably the one white nylon shirt he owned and which he called La Semanera the Weekly One because he wore it all the time and washed it once a week. There are only three women in the group photograph, one of whom is Berta Tita Infante, with whom Ernesto had a deep but platonic relationship. She is looking at the camera with an intense gaze. Tita and Ernesto met in an anatomy course and became very close friends and condants.
It appears she wanted more from the relationship than he did or at least more than he was willing to give at the time. What follows is her description of Ernesto: By his accent he was a provincial, by his appearance he was a beautiful and uninhibited young man.
A mixture of shyness and arrogance, maybe the audacity hid his profound intelligence. Their friendship lasted beyond medical school, and he corresponded almost as frequently with her after he left Argentina as he did with his mother and Aunt Beatriz. As for Ernestos own reection on this period of his life, years later he said the following: When I began to study medicine, the majority of the concepts that I have as a revolutionary were absent from the storehouse of my ideas.
I wanted to succeed, like everyone; I dreamed of being a famous researcher, dreamed of working untiringly to succeed at doing something that could be denitively placed at the disposal of humanity, but in that moment it was a personal achievement. I was, as we all are, a child of my environment. Ernesto loved to travel. His father wrote that with time he came to understand his obsession with travelling was just another part of his zeal for learning Guevara However, Ernesto disguised this motivation for his early trips by talking casually about his travel plans and by at least pretending to be motivated primarily by the desire for adventure.
His diary of his now famous trip Guevara throughout South America is written primarily in this vein. However, his subsequent trip throughout South and Central America was clearly motivated by more serious intentions, especially after he reached Central America see chapter 3. Ernestos rst noteworthy journey on his own took place in , when he toured all of central and northern Argentina by motorbikea trip of some 4, miles Gambini He was 21 and a medical student at the University of Buenos Aires at the time.
On his journey he stopped off in Crdoba to visit his friends Toms and Alberto Granado. Alberto was conducting research on lepers at a leprosarium near San Francisco del Chaar, and because Ernesto was intrigued by Albertos research he spent several days with Alberto at the leprosarium.
From there he headed north and met an interesting assortment of hobos, vagabonds, seasonal workers, poor indigenous inhabitants, and other socially marginalized people along the way. He often stayed overnight in police stations and provincial hospitals where he asked if he could sleep in vacant jail cells or empty hospital beds. As a result, for the rst time in his adult life, Ernesto.
What he learned from this trip to the poorer northern region of his country was that Argentinas more modern and supercial European culture was a luxurious faade under which the countrys true soul lay; and that soul was rotten and diseased.
It was from this region of the country that the Argentine Indians, commonly referred to as coyas, and the mixed-blood cabezitas negras little black heads ed in steadily increasing numbers, pouring into the cities in search of work and setting up shantytowns like the one in front of the Guevaras home in Crdoba Anderson They were the social class of domestic servants and day laborers called descamisados shirtless ones whom Pron and his wife Evita promised to incorporate into the nation and whom Argentinas white elite still exploit and despise.
When Ernesto returned to Buenos Aires from this trip he took the motorbike back to the store where he bought it in order to have it reconditioned.
When the store owner discovered the details of the trip, he was astounded and asked Ernesto to give him a letter attesting to his having made such a fantastic trip using the particular brand of motorbike that he used. This letter, along with a picture of Ernesto sitting on his motorbike, was published in a local sports magazine as an advertisement for this type of motorbike Taibo Ernesto returned to his studies in medical school, resumed playing rugby, and continued working in Dr.
Pisanis clinic. He also fell in love for the rst time. The object of his affection was the year-old daughter of one of Crdobas wealthiest families. Her name was Mara del Carmen Chichina Ferreyra, and they met in October at a wedding in Crdoba attended by Ernesto and his family. By all accounts, she was a strikingly beautiful, intelligent, and charming young woman, who was as infatuated with him as he was with her Taibo: However, this ro-.
Chichinas family lived in an imposing French-style chateau with parklike gardens in Crdoba and on a large estate called La Malagueo outside of the city. According to her cousin, Dolores Moyano: The family visited the village church every Sunday for Mass, worshipping in a separate alcove to the right of the altar with its own separate entrance and private communion rail, away from the mass of workers. In many ways, La Malagueo exemplied everything that Ernesto despised. Yet, unpredictable as always, Ernesto had fallen madly in love with the princess of this little empire, my cousin Chichina Ferreyra, an extraordinarily beautiful and charming girl, who, to the dismay of her parents, was equally fascinated by Ernesto.
Ernesto was madly in love with Chichina and wanted to marry her. But the differences in their age and social class, her parents disapproval of him, and the distance between them began to strain their relationship.
At the beginning of , Ernesto needed to earn some money, so he signed up to serve as a ships nurse on Argentinas merchant marine freighters and oil tankers Taibo: Between February and June , he made various trips back and forth between Argentina and Brazil, Venezuela, and the Caribbean islands.
These trips gave him plenty of time to study for his medical exams and exposed him to life at sea as well as most of the ports of call on the Atlantic Coast of South America and in the Caribbean. At the end of June , he went back to medical school. On one of his visits to Crdoba to see Chichina he also visited his friends the Granado brothers.
In the course of a conversation with Alberto. Granado while working on his motorcycle, nicknamed La Poderosa the Powerful One , the idea of making a yearlong trip together took shape. Ernestos account of this momentous occasion is as follows: Our fantasizing took us to far away places, sailing tropical seas, travelling through Asia. And suddenly, slipping in as if part of our fantasy, came the question: Why dont we go to North America? North America? On La Poderosa, man. Thats how the trip came about, and it never deviated from the general principle laid down then: My task before leaving was to take as many exams in as many subjects as possible; Albertos to get the bike ready for the long journey.
At that stage the momentousness of our endeavor hadnt dawned on us, all we could see was the dusty road ahead and us on our bike devouring kilometers in the ight northward. Guevara Alberto had quit his job, and Ernesto was tired of medical school, hospitals, and studying for exams. He was also frustrated by the opposition of Chichinas parents to their relationship. For these reasons, they both wanted to take a break from their existing circumstances. Thus, in December , when he lacked only one year of receiving his medical degree, Ernesto and his friend Alberto Granados decided to set out to explore all of Latin America by motorcycle.
Ernestos Motorcycle Diaries Guevara , which were published many years after his death, provide a valuable personal narrative of this journey. They shed light on a little known period in his young adulthood and provide important insights into his personality and the development of his views about the world.
Written while he was traveling around South America in his early 20s, they allow the reader to gain an intimate portrait of him at an important and formative period in his life. Ironically, most of this trip was not made on a motorcycle. In fact, Ernesto and Alberto traveled on just about every mode of transportation available at the timehorses, railroads, buses, trucks, cars, ships, ferries, boats, rafts, and airplanes and of course on their feet.
After their motorcycle died in Chile, they were forced to walk, hitchhike, and use whatever means was available to make their way from one end of the South American continent to the other.
Ernestos lucid and brief accounts in his diary enable the reader to almost hear his thoughts, view the world through his eyes, and sense his spirit. In a certain sense they allow the reader to travel back in time to meet the man before he made his grand entrance on the stage of world history as one of the most charismatic and emblematic revolutionaries of all time.
They had increasing problems with the motorcycle as they traveled over the Andes and through southern Chile. As they neared the Chilean capital of Santiago, the motorcycle nally gave out and they had to continue the rest of their trip on foot.
They also quickly ran out of money. They were forced to panhandle, freeload, and work at numerous odd jobs in order to continue their journey northward through Chile to Peru, through Peru to Colombia, and nally to Venezuela. Along the way, Ernesto developed a critical social consciousness based on the many instances of social injustice, human exploitation, and racial and ethnic discrimination he witnessed in all the countries he visited. He also developed a Latin American identity as he discovered that the people in these countries shared common values, aspirations, and sociohistorical conditions.
When Ernesto announced his travel plans to his family they were surprised to learn he planned to be away for a whole year, particularly because of his love affair with Chichina Guevara When his father asked him about her, Ernesto said: If she loves me, shell wait. Years later, his father reected on Ernestos motivations for this trip in the prologue he wrote for the so-called Motorcycle Diaries.
He said he really did not understand his sons motivations at the time and it was only many years later that he realized what truly motivated him. He wrote: I was puzzled. I didnt understand Ernesto.
There were things about him I couldnt quite fathom. They only became clear with time. I didnt realize then that his obsession with travelling was just another part of his zeal for learning. He knew that really to understand the needs of the poor he had to travel the world, not as a tourist stopping to take pretty pictures and enjoy the scenery, but.
Years later, thinking back over his continuous. However, through reading his letters and later his diaries, his father realized his son was following a true missionary impulse which never left him and possessed a mystical and certain knowledge of his own destiny Guevara The choice of the term missionary is somewhat misleading, since Ernesto at this stage was certainly not concerned with propagating a specic ideology or doctrine. He was very open-minded, quite secular in his thinking, and generally respectful of the cultural differences he encountered in his travels.
In fact, there is very little evidence of the kind of dogmatism and ethnocentrism in his thinking that one associates with the thinking of most missionaries. His father had to suffer in silence the fears he had for his son when he learned he was planning to take a year away from his studies to go on the incredible transcontinental odyssey he and his friend Alberto Granado had planned.
When he told me of the journey he planned with Granado, I took him aside and said: Youve some hard times ahead. How can I advise against it when its something Ive always dreamed of myself? But remember, if you get lost in those jungles and I dont hear from you at reasonable intervals, Ill come looking for you, trace your steps, and wont come back until I nd you.
He and Alberto started out on their journey on January 4, midsummer in the Southern Hemisphere. They went rst to the Atlantic Coast of Argentina to visit one of Ernestos uncles in Villa Gisell and then to the beach resort city of Miramar to say good-bye to Chichina, who was vacationing there with one of her aunts.
Ernesto brought with him a puppy for Chichina whom he signicantly named Come Back.
He ended up staying eight days in Miramar, and Al-. Ernesto wrote the following in his diary about this romantic interlude at the outset of their long journey: The trip hung in the balance, in a cocoon, subordinate to the word which consents and ties. Alberto saw the danger and was already imagining himself alone on the highways and byways of America, but he said nothing. The tug of war was between her and me.
The two days Id planned stretched like elastic into eight and with the bittersweet taste of goodbye mingling with my inveterate halitosis I nally felt myself wafted away on the winds of adventure.
Several weeks later in the Andean mountain resort of Bariloche, Ernesto found a letter from Chichina waiting for him at the local post ofce, where they had previously arranged he would pick up his mail. In this letter, she informed him she had decided not to wait for him. In his diary, he wrote the following about his reactions: I read and re-read the incredible letter. Suddenly all my dreams of home, bound up with the eyes which saw me off in Miramar, were shattered, apparently for no good reason page Although he was clearly hurt and wanted at rst to write a weepy letter, he realized it was hopeless to convince her to change her mind.
He also wrote: I thought I loved her until this moment when I realized I couldnt feel, I had to think her back again. The next day Ernesto and Alberto crossed a mountain lake into Chile on a leaking ferry boat that they kept aoat by pumping out the bilge water in return for their free passage. On this boat they met some Chilean doctors who told them there was a leper colony on Easter Island Rapa Nui, or Isla de Pascua , some 2, miles from mainland Chile in the southeastern Pacic.
As Ernesto wrote in his diary: It was a wonderful island, they said, and our scientic appetites were whetted page They resolved to travel to the island and asked one of the doctors to give. With their money running low, they were forced to freeload their way through southern Chile. In the southern port city of Valdivia they dropped in on the local newspaper, which interviewed them for an article about their journey.
As a result, they decided in a gesture of great magnanimity to dedicate their trip to the city since it was celebrating the th anniversary of its founding. At their next stop, in the picturesque central Chilean town of Temuco, they were interviewed again by the local newspaper, which was printed under the title: Ernestos account in his diary of this article and their short stay in Temuco reveals some of the avor of their trip at this point as well as his tongue-in-cheek view of their freeloading style of travel.
We had asked permission to leave the bike in the garage of a man who lived on the outskirts and we now made our way there, no longer just a pair of reasonably likeable bums with a bike in tow. No, we were now the experts, and thats how we were treated. We spent the day xing the bike and a little dark maid kept coming up with edible treats. At ve oclock, after a sumptuous snack laid on by our host, we said goodbye to Temuco and headed north.
They were worried they would have to spend the night in the open, but as Ernesto recounts in his diary: We werent just anybody now, we were the experts; we soon found a railway worker who took us to his house where we were treated like kings page They xed the tire at a garage the next day and resumed their trip, but they soon encountered more trouble.
Without any warning, their motorcycle veered sideways and threw them off. The crash broke the bikes steering column and smashed its gearbox. This was the beginning of the end of La Poderosa. Although they managed to weld the steering column and x the gearbox at a local garage, the bike was never the same again. While they were working on the bike at this garage they bummed something to eat and drink at the homes of the curiosity seekers who dropped by to see the two famous travelers working on their motorcycle.
Their last night in Temuco they were invited by the mechanics at the garage to have drinks with them and go to a village dance, where Ernesto got drunk and caused an altercation on the dance oor. He wrote the following account of this incident in his diary: Chilean wine is very good and I was downing it at an amazing rate, so by the time we went on to the village dance I felt ready for anything.
One of the mechanics from the garage, a particularly nice guy, asked me to dance with his wife because hed been mixing his drinks and was the worse for wear. His wife was pretty randy [feeling horny] and obviously in the mood, and I, full of Chilean wine, took her by the hand to lead her outside. She followed me docilely but then realized her husband was watching and changed her mind. I was in no state to listen to reason and we had a bit of a barney [quarrel] in the middle of the dance oor, resulting in me pulling her toward one of the doors with everybody watching.
She tried to kick me and as I was pulling her she lost her balance and went crashing to the oor. Since they had now worn out the hospitality of their local hosts, they left the next day, but only after having lunch at the house of the family that lived next to the garage.
On the road north to Santiago, they had another bad spill on the motorcycle and they had to repair it once again. Shortly thereafter, the bike nally gave its last gasp going up a steep hill, and they had to hitch a lift on a truck going to the town of Los Angeles.
They arranged to stay in a volunteer re station in Los Angeles and in a few days found a truck to take them and the bike to Santiago, where they left the corpse of La Poderosa at a garage. At this point in their journey Ernesto noted they ceased being motorized bums and became non-motorized bums page From this point forward they had to rely on their freeloading skills to hitch rides, bum meals and lodgings, work at odd jobs when they could,.
Ernesto noted in his diary their transition to this new stage in their journey: We were used to attracting idle attention with our strange garb and the prosaic gure of La Poderosa II, whose asthmatic wheezing aroused pity in our hosts.
All the same, we had been, so to speak, gentlemen of the road. Wed belonged to a time-honored aristocracy of wayfarers, bearing our degrees as visiting cards to impress people. Not any more. Now we were just two tramps with packs on our backs, and the grime of the road encrusted in our overalls, shadows of our former aristocratic selves.
While they were in Valparaso they made friends with the owner of a bar named La Gioconda the name of a famous Italian opera and another name for the Mona Lisa painting. The bar owner would not let them pay for their food or drink and even let them sleep in the kitchen.
He was found of saying: Today its your turn, tomorrow itll be mine page While they were there, he asked Ernesto to visit one of his elderly customers who was suffering from asthma and a bad heart. Ernestos comments in his diary about this old woman reveal a great deal about his social views at this stage in his life. He observed that the poor thing was in an awful state, breathing the smell of stale sweat and dirty feet that lled her room, mixed with the dust from a couple of armchairs, which were the only luxuries in her house page Such circumstances, he said, made a doctor feel powerless and long for change that would end the social injustices of the present order.
He noted that in such cases we see the profound tragedy which circumscribes the life of the proletariat [working class] the world over, since the poverty of their existence makes them at the end of their lives a bitter burden for the poor family members who have to take care of them. His concluding comments were these: How long this present order, based on an absurd idea of caste, will last I cant say, but he added it was time for governments to spend more money, much more money, funding socially useful projects.
From Valparaso, Ernesto and Alberto stowed away on a boat that was headed for the northern port of Antofagasta. They were discovered after the boat was at sea and forced to do menial chores such as cleaning the latrines and the decks. However, at night the captain invited them to drink and play cards with him. When they arrived in Antofagasta they tried to stow away on another boat headed farther north, but they were caught before it sailed and put onshore.
Instead, they traveled north overland through the desert by hitching rides on trucks. So it was that they ended up visiting Chiles largest copper mine at Chuquicamata. On the way they made friends with a married couple who were mine workers and members of the Chilean Communist Party.
The husband told them about his three months in prison as a result of the Chilean governments proscription of the party and persecution of its members, and about his starving wife who followed him with exemplary loyalty, his children left in the care of a kindly neighbor, his fruitless pilgrimage in search of work and his comrades who had mysteriously disappeared and were said to be somewhere at the bottom of the sea page According to his diary, when Ernesto and Alberto encountered the couple, they were numb with cold, huddling together in the desert night without a single miserable blanket to sleep under, so we gave them one of ours and Alberto and I wrapped the other around us as best we could.
Ernesto saw them as a living symbol of the proletariat the world over and wrote that its really upsetting to think they use repressive measures against people like these, since what motivated them to join the Communist Party was nothing more than the natural desire for a better life and their protest against persistent hunger.
He observed that this motivation had led them to adopt Communist ideology, whose real meaning he felt they could never grasp, but when it was translated into bread for the poor was something that they could understand and that gave them hope for the future page When he and Alberto visited the huge U. In his diary, he wrote: The bosses, the blond, efcient, arrogant managers, told us in primitive Spanish: Ill get a guide to give you a half-hour tour around the mine and then please be good enough to leave, we have a lot of work.
He also noted that a strike was being planned at the mine and wrote in his diary that their guide, who he called the Yankee bosses faithful lapdog, told us: Stupid gringos, they lose thousands of pesos every day in a strike so as not to give a poor worker a couple of extra centavos.
Ernesto noted in his diary that Chile offers economic possibilities to anyone willing to work as long as hes not from the proletariat, since the country had enough mineral resources copper, iron, coal, tin, gold, silver, manganese, nitrates, etc. However, he observed that the main thing Chile has to do is to get its tiresome Yankee friend off its back, a Herculean task, at least for the time being, given the huge US investment and the ease with which it can bring economic pressure to bear whenever its interests are threatened page From Chuquicamata, Ernesto and Alberto hitchhiked to the Peruvian border.
In Peru, they adopted a pattern of hitching rides on the trucks carrying people and freight between the main towns and asking if they could stay overnight in the guard stations of the Peruvian Civil Guard the countrys paramilitary national police force or the hospitals in the towns where they stopped.
As they traveled, they came in close contact with Perus exploited and suffering Indian masses, who represent a majority of the population. They saw how the Indians of the Peruvian altiplano high plateau were and still are exploited and oppressed. In Tarata, Peru, Ernesto wrote in his diary about how the local Peruvian Indians the Aymars are not the same proud race that time after time rose up against Inca rule and forced them to maintain a permanent army on their borders; rather, they had become a defeated race since the Spanish Conquest and centuries of colonial domination.
He noted that they look at us meekly, almost fearfully, completely indifferent to the outside world, and some give the impression that they go on living simply because its a habit they cant give up page After they left Tarata, they traveled on the same truck with a schoolteacher who had been red by the government because he was a member of the leftist APRA party American Popular Revolutionary Alliance. He was part Indian and seemed to know a great deal about Perus indigenous cultures and customs.
He told Ernesto and Alberto about the animosity that exists between the Indians, whom he admired, and the mestizos half-bloods , whom he considered wily and cowardly, even though he. According to Ernesto: The teachers voice took on a strange inspired resonance whenever he spoke about his Indians. The teacher told Ernesto and Alberto about the need to establish schools for the Indians that would teach them to value their own world and that would enable them to play a useful role within it.
He also spoke about the need to change completely the present system of education, which he said on the rare occasions it does offer Indians an education education, that is, according to the white mans criteria , only lls them with shame and resentment, leaving them unable to help their fellow Indians and at a tremendous disadvantage in a white society which is hostile to them page Ernesto made frequent references in his diary to the plight of the Indians and to the injustices and discrimination they suffered at the hands of the whites and mestizos.
When he and Alberto visited the magnicent Incan ruins of Machu Picchu, he also noted how the North American tourists paid little or no attention to how the Indians lived. Although he and Alberto traveled to the ruins on the third-class train used only by the local Indians, he observed: The tourists travelling in their comfortable railcars can only have the very vaguest idea of how the Indians live, gleaned from a quick glance as they whizz by our train which has to stop to let them pass page And he later criticized how the wealthier people in Peru expected their Indian servants to carry anything heavy and put up with any discomfort page Because of their interest in leprosy, they went to Lima, the capital city of Peru, to meet Dr.
Hugo Pesce, a well-known expert in leprology and a university professor. Pesce put them up in the leper hospital he ran in Lima and invited them to eat dinner at his house, which they did just about every night while they stayed in Lima. They divided their time between the leper hospital and the National Museum of the Archaeology, Anthropology, and History of Peru, which presents the history of Peru from prehistoric times to the colonial era.
Ernesto also had long conversations about philosophy, politics, and critical health issues in Latin America with Dr. Pesce had been forced into political exile during the rst years of the dictatorship of General Manuel Odra and was probably the rst man of medicine Ernesto and Alberto had met who was genuinely living a highly principled life and totally dedicated to serving the common good Anderson In Lima, Ernesto and Alberto decided to give up their original objective of traveling to the United States.
They chose Venezuela as their ultimate destination after rst visiting Dr. Pesces largest treatment center for lepers in Perus Amazonian region. When they were ready to leave, the patients of the leper hospital in Lima gave them an emotional send-off party.
They were very touched by the affectionate farewell the patients gave them and by the small collection of money they presented them for their trip. Ernesto wrote in his diary that some had tears in their eyes as they thanked us for coming, spending time with them, accepting their presents, sitting listening to football [soccer] on the radio with them, and he added that if anything were to make us seriously specialize in leprosy, it would be the affection the patients show us wherever we go page Somewhat later, in a letter he wrote to his father from Iquitos, Peru, he observed that their appreciation stemmed from the fact that we didnt wear overalls or gloves, that we shook hands with them as we would the next man, sat with them chatting about this and that, and played football with them.
He added: This may seem pointless bravado, but the psychological benet to these peopleusually treated like animalsof being treated as normal human beings is incalculable and the risk incredibly remote page Their destination when they set out from Lima was the San Pablo leper colony situated on the banks of the Amazon River.
They hitchhiked from Lima to Pucallpa and then took a boat down the Ucayali River one of the headwaters of the Amazon to Iquitos. From Iquitos they took another boat down the Amazon to the San Pablo leper colony. Once there, they volunteered to work in the leprosariums laboratory and endeared themselves to both the staff and the patients.
They played soccer with the patients, took them on hikes, and even led them on hunting expeditions. While they were at the colony, Ernesto turned 24 and the staff threw a birthday party for him.
After he was given a touching toast by the di-. An excerpt from his account of this speech is worth quoting since it reveals his newfound Latin American identity and also what would become one of his deepest political convictions: In a few days we will be leaving Peru, so these words are also a farewell, and Id like to stress my gratitude to all the people of this country, who over and over again since we arrived.
And I would like to add another thought, nothing to do with this toast. Although were too insignicant to be spokesmen for such a noble cause, we believe, and this journey has only served to conrm this belief, that the division of America into unstable and illusory nations is a complete ction.
We are one single mestizo race with remarkable ethnographical similarities, from Mexico down to the Magellan Straits.
And so, in an attempt to break free from all narrow-minded provincialism, I propose a toast to Peru and to a United America.
When it came time for Ernesto and Alberto to leave, some of the patients gave them a very emotional farewell serenade, with a blind man singing local songs and a man with virtually no ngers playing an accordion. Alberto thanked them and said they were both deeply touched. The next day, Ernesto and Alberto went to see the patients and after taking some photographs with them came back with two large pineapples.
After saying their nal good-byes they cast off in a raft, named Mambo-Tango, built for them by one of the staff members so they could go down the river to Leticia, Colombia, where the borders of Colombia, Peru, and Brazil meet on the upper Amazon. In Leticia, they got 50 percent off on the weekly ight to Bogot and made some money coaching and playing for the towns soccer team.
When they arrived in Bogot they obtained permission to stay at a hospital where they were offered jobs in the leprosy service.
However, they had a run-in with the local police over a knife Ernesto carried with him that was a present from his brother Roberto. They were harassed. In reference to this encounter with the Colombian police in a letter Ernesto wrote to his mother from Bogot, he observed: There is more repression of individual freedom here than in any country weve been to, the police patrol the streets carrying ries and demand your papers every few minutes, which some of them read upside down page He also wrote that the countryside is in open revolt and the army is powerless to put it down.
Because of this situation, he said: Were getting out of here as soon as we can. A few days later, the two harassed travelers left Bogot on a bus headed for Venezuela.
They made their way to Caracas, the capital of Venezuela. Alberto looked up a doctor who was a specialist in leprology.
Impressed by Albertos interest in leprosy, the doctor offered him a position in his laboratory. At about the same time, Ernesto ran into an uncle who had an airplane that he used to transport race horses between Buenos Aires and Miami. The uncle told Ernesto that he could return with him to Buenos Aires if he wanted to resume his studies at medical school. Ernesto and Alberto made a pact: Alberto would accept the job offered him and stay in Venezuela, while Ernesto would go back to Buenos Aires to graduate from medical school and then return to Venezuela to work with Alberto.
It was the end of July when they said good-bye in Caracas. In one of the last entries in his diary, Ernesto commented on how much he missed Alberto. He said: Im always turning around to tell him something and then I realize hes not there. And he added: All these months weve been together through thick and thin and the habit of dreaming the same dreams in similar situations has made us even closer.
On the other hand, the same entry makes it clear he was looking forward to going home to start my studies again and nally getting the degree which will enable me to practice [medicine] page When Ernesto left Caracas, the plane he took went to Miami, where it was scheduled to stop before returning to Buenos Aires. However, when they got to Miami the plane had mechanical problems, so it had to be repaired before it could leave for Buenos Aires.
Ernesto took advantage of this opportunity to get to know the city pages As it turned out, he had to wait a whole month for the plane to be repaired. He had. During the month that he stayed in Miami, Ernesto visited the beaches and hung around with an Argentine student he met, who helped him nd a job as a dishwasher in one of Miamis restaurants. When the plane was repaired, he ew back to Buenos Aires. It was September In the prologue he wrote for Ernestos The Motorcycle Diaries, his father says we can see in this written account of Ernestos eight-month journey that he had faith in himself as well as the will to succeed, and a tremendous determination to achieve what he set out to do page 4.
He also recounts the observations made about Ernesto by a priest, Father Cuchetti, a friend of the family who was well known in Argentina for his liberal views. When he told him about Ernesto and Albertos trip to the Amazon and their stay in the San Pablo leper colony, the priest said the following: I take my hat off to your son and his friends humanity and integrity, because to do what [they did] takes more than just guts: Your son will go far page 2.
The Motorcycle Diaries reveal Ernestos growing political consciousness and his early leanings toward socialism as he learned rsthand during his travels of the extreme conditions of social injustice and oppression that prevail throughout Latin America. However, what is most striking about The Motorcycle Diaries is that while they reveal he had a strong desire to help others less fortunate than himself, he did not possess the kind of self-righteousness or exaggerated piety that one often associates with zealous do-gooders and missionaries.
The legendary actor, producer, and director Robert Redford produced a popular lm version of The Motorcycle Diaries, which was directed by the well-known Brazilian lm director Walter Salles. The lm was shown in cinemas around the world during and It provides a moving account of Ernestos journey with his friend Alberto Granado throughout Latin America. It stars the popular Mexican actor Gael Garca Bernal as the young Ernesto, while Alberto is played by the Argentine actor Rodrigo de la Serna, who is related to Ernesto Che Guevara through his mothers side of the family.
After making the lm, Garca Bernal reportedly said: Hes a person that changed the world and he has really forced me to change the rules of what I am Osborne Redford traveled to Havana to obtain permission to make the lm from Ches widow, Aleida March, who maintains an archive of all his writings, ofcial papers, and information written about him. When the production of the lm was completed, Redford returned to Cuba to host a special screening, which was attended by Aleida, year-old Alberto Granado, Ches sons and daughters, his former comrades, and people who had worked closely with him during the early years of the Cuban revolution.
According to Redford, the lm was well received by this audience, and he said later: I could have probably died there in the seat. When I heard people snifng and crying and I thought either theyre so upset with me Im not gonna get out of here, or they liked the lm, which they did Smiley The lm was generally well received by critics and won various awards, including one Oscar.
Gael Garca Bernal criticized the poor distribution of the lm in the United States. As a result, most people in the United States never even consider seeing them and they do not get the chance to compete with the well-funded, mainstream Hollywood lms. They get tossed off as foreign and independent lms like they are somehow not ready to compete with all that crap that Hollywood produces. Nevertheless, the lm is available in DVD format and can be purchased or rented.
As his diaries and the lm reveals, Ernesto learned a great deal about Latin America and himself through his travels.
As a young man wandering around South America, he learned to take pleasure in traveling for days on end with little or no money, without the possibility of taking a bath and changing his clothes, and not even knowing when he would eat next or where he would stay the night. The knowledge he gained from this experience of surviving on his own wits and the personal traits he developed as a result of traveling from day to day in this manner helped prepare him for the life he would lead much later as a guerrilla ghter, when he often had to survive without food, water, bathing, or adequate clothing.
After he returned to Argentina, Ernesto undertook the remaining courses and exams to complete the requirements for his graduation from medical school. He met all the remaining requirements in less than a year and obtained his medical degree in March He still wanted to join Alberto Granado in Caracas as they had planned at the end of their trip together in July , and he wanted at some point to visit Europe and maybe Asia.
He did not want to settle down to a comfortable bourgeois life as a well-paid doctor in Argentina. Thus, at 25 years old with his medical degree in hand, Ernesto decided to set out on his second Latin American odyssey. As his old friend Alberto Granado states in the foreword to the published version, Back on the Road Otra Vez , of the diary Ernesto kept during this trip Guevara Whereas his rst trip in South America served to deepen his ideas about social distinctions and made him see the importance of struggling against them, this second journey consolidates the political knowledge he has acquired and fuels a growing need for further.
His old friend is absolutely correct when he observes that while Ernesto is still motivated by a desire for travel and the study of archeology particularly the Incan, Mayan, and Aztec civilizations , his political views were increasingly radicalized by the political, economic, and social conditions he witnessed in the countries he visited, especially Guatemala.
On this trip he is accompanied by another childhood friend, Carlos Calica Ferrer, whose political awareness, interests, and temperament are less compatible with those of Ernesto than were those of Alberto. While he starts the trip with a vague plan to join Alberto in Caracas and has some notion of later traveling to Europe and maybe Asia, he changes his travel plans in Ecuador, goes from there to Guatemala, and ends up in Mexico two years later.
As Ricardo Gott notes in the introduction to Ernestos diary of this trip Guevara His mother and father would not see him again for another six years, and by that time their itinerate son had become famous throughout the world as Che Guevara, the guerrilla ghter who had fought alongside Fidel Castro to bring revolutionary change to Cuba.
And it would be another eight years in before he would visit his homeland again, as one of the most important leaders of the new revolutionary government of Cuba. His outlook at the start of the trip is that of a Latin American not just an Argentine , but by the time he visits Argentina again in it is that of a revolutionary internationalist.
Ernesto and Calica crossed from northern Argentina into southern Bolivia at La Quiaca, not far from where Ernesto would some 13 years later establish a base of operations for the revolutionary guerrilla movement he hoped would liberate the entire continent of South America. They arrived in the Bolivian capital just a year after the country had undergone a dramatic popular revolution in which the major foreign-owned mines had been nationalized and the peasants had taken possession of the feudal estates on which they had formerly labored as unpaid serfs and tenant farmers.
Thus, Ernesto found La Paz lled with revolutionary political fervor and excitement. The widest range of adventurers of all nationalities vegetate and prosper in the midst of a colorful mestiza city that is leading the country to its destiny.
The well-to-do rened people are shocked at what has been happening and complain bitterly about the new importance conferred on Indians and mestizos, but in all of them I thought I could detect a spark of nationalist enthusiasm for some of what the government has done.
One of these exiles was a young lawyer named Ricardo Rojo. He interprets history, understands its dynamic, predicts the future, but in addition to predicting it which would satisfy his scientific obligation , he expresses a revolutionary concept: Man ceases to be the slave and tool of his environment and converts himself into the architect of his own destiny. Our revolution has discovered by its methods the paths that Marx pointed out. In defending his political stance, Guevara confidently remarked, "There are truths so evident, so much a part of people's knowledge, that it is now useless to discuss them.
One ought to be Marxist with the same naturalness with which one is ' Newtonian ' in physics , or ' Pasteurian ' in biology. Man truly achieves his full human condition when he produces without being compelled by the physical necessity of selling himself as a commodity. At this stage, Guevara acquired the additional position of Finance Minister, as well as President of the National Bank. These appointments, combined with his existing position as Minister of Industries, placed Guevara at the zenith of his power, as the "virtual czar" of the Cuban economy.
Instead of using his full name, he signed the bills solely " Che ". In an effort to eliminate social inequalities , Guevara and Cuba's new leadership had moved to swiftly transform the political and economic base of the country through nationalizing factories, banks, and businesses, while attempting to ensure affordable housing, healthcare, and employment for all Cubans.
Believing that the attitudes in Cuba towards race, women, individualism , and manual labor were the product of the island's outdated past, all individuals were urged to view each other as equals and take on the values of what Guevara termed "el Hombre Nuevo" the New Man.
He negatively viewed capitalism as a "contest among wolves" where "one can only win at the cost of others" and thus desired to see the creation of a "new man and woman". In congruence with this, all educational, mass media, and artistic community based facilities were nationalized and utilized to instill the government's official socialist ideology. There is a great difference between free-enterprise development and revolutionary development.
In one of them, wealth is concentrated in the hands of a fortunate few, the friends of the government, the best wheeler-dealers. In the other, wealth is the people's patrimony. A further integral part of fostering a sense of "unity between the individual and the mass", Guevara believed, was volunteer work and will.
To display this, Guevara "led by example", working "endlessly at his ministry job, in construction, and even cutting sugar cane" on his day off. As a replacement for the pay increases abolished by Guevara, workers who exceeded their quota now only received a certificate of commendation, while workers who failed to meet their quotas were given a pay cut. This is not a matter of how many pounds of meat one might be able to eat, or how many times a year someone can go to the beach, or how many ornaments from abroad one might be able to buy with his current salary.
What really matters is that the individual feels more complete, with much more internal richness and much more responsibility. In the face of a loss of commercial connections with Western states, Guevara tried to replace them with closer commercial relationships with Eastern Bloc states, visiting a number of Marxist states and signing trade agreements with them. It was also in East Germany where Guevara met Tamara Bunke later known as "Tania" , who was assigned as his interpreter, and who joined him years later, and was killed with him in Bolivia.
Whatever the merits or demerits of Guevara's economic principles, his programs were unsuccessful,  and accompanied a rapid drop in productivity and a rapid rise in absenteeism.
Stone who interviewed Guevara twice during this time, remarked that he was " Galahad not Robespierre ", while opining that "in a sense he was, like some early saint, taking refuge in the desert.
Only there could the purity of the faith be safeguarded from the unregenerate revisionism of human nature ". On April 17, , 1, U. However, historians give him a share of credit for the victory as he was director of instruction for Cuba's armed forces at the time. Kennedy through Richard N. Before the invasion, the revolution was shaky. Now it's stronger than ever. In short, they seem to prepare the revolution of the toilets.
Guevara, who was practically the architect of the Soviet—Cuban relationship ,  then played a key role in bringing to Cuba the Soviet nuclear-armed ballistic missiles that precipitated the Cuban Missile Crisis in October and brought the world to the brink of nuclear war.
Afterward, he denounced the Soviets almost as frequently as he denounced the Americans. In December , Che Guevara had emerged as a "revolutionary statesman of world stature" and thus traveled to New York City as head of the Cuban delegation to speak at the United Nations. Those who kill their own children and discriminate daily against them because of the color of their skin; those who let the murderers of blacks remain free, protecting them, and furthermore punishing the black population because they demand their legitimate rights as free men—how can those who do this consider themselves guardians of freedom?
An indignant Guevara ended his speech by reciting the Second Declaration of Havana , decreeing Latin America a "family of million brothers who suffer the same miseries".
To Guevara the conflict was a struggle of masses and ideas, which would be carried forth by those "mistreated and scorned by imperialism " who were previously considered "a weak and submissive flock".
With this "flock", Guevara now asserted, "Yankee monopoly capitalism" now terrifyingly saw their "gravediggers". Guevara closed his remarks to the General Assembly by hypothesizing that this "wave of anger" would "sweep the lands of Latin America" and that the labor masses who "turn the wheel of history" were now, for the first time, "awakening from the long, brutalizing sleep to which they had been subjected".
Guevara later learned there had been two failed attempts on his life by Cuban exiles during his stop at the UN complex. Afterwards Guevara commented on both incidents, stating that "it is better to be killed by a woman with a knife than by a man with a gun", while adding with a languid wave of his cigar that the explosion had "given the whole thing more flavor".
The latter expressed his admiration, declaring Guevara "one of the most revolutionary men in this country right now" while reading a statement from him to a crowd at the Audubon Ballroom. When they found out, the television [station] came to ask me about the Lynch genealogy, but in case they were horse thieves or something like that, I didn't say much. During this voyage, he wrote a letter to Carlos Quijano, editor of a Uruguayan weekly, which was later retitled Socialism and Man in Cuba.
He also laid out the reasoning behind his anti-capitalist sentiments, stating:. The laws of capitalism, blind and invisible to the majority, act upon the individual without his thinking about it. He sees only the vastness of a seemingly infinite horizon before him. That is how it is painted by capitalist propagandists, who purport to draw a lesson from the example of Rockefeller —whether or not it is true—about the possibilities of success.
The amount of poverty and suffering required for the emergence of a Rockefeller , and the amount of depravity that the accumulation of a fortune of such magnitude entails, are left out of the picture, and it is not always possible to make the people in general see this.
Guevara ended the essay by declaring that "the true revolutionary is guided by a great feeling of love" and beckoning on all revolutionaries to "strive every day so that this love of living humanity will be transformed into acts that serve as examples", thus becoming "a moving force".
In Algiers , Algeria, on February 24, , Guevara made what turned out to be his last public appearance on the international stage when he delivered a speech at an economic seminar on Afro-Asian solidarity.
He proceeded to outline a number of measures which he said the communist-bloc countries must implement in order to accomplish the defeat of imperialism. As revealed in his last public speech in Algiers, Guevara had come to view the Northern Hemisphere , led by the U. He strongly supported Communist North Vietnam in the Vietnam War , and urged the peoples of other developing countries to take up arms and create "many Vietnams".
The Economics of Revolution . In Guevara's private writings from this time since released , he displays his growing criticism of the Soviet political economy, believing that the Soviets had "forgotten Marx ".
Guevara wanted the complete elimination of money, interest , commodity production , the market economy , and " mercantile relationships ": Two weeks after his Algiers speech and his return to Cuba, Guevara dropped out of public life and then vanished altogether. His disappearance was variously attributed to the failure of the Cuban industrialization scheme he had advocated while minister of industries, to pressure exerted on Castro by Soviet officials who disapproved of Guevara's pro- Chinese Communist stance on the Sino-Soviet split , and to serious differences between Guevara and the pragmatic Castro regarding Cuba's economic development and ideological line.
Still, rumors spread both inside and outside Cuba concerning the missing Guevara's whereabouts. On October 3, , Castro publicly revealed an undated letter purportedly written to him by Guevara around seven months earlier which was later titled Che Guevara's "farewell letter". In the letter, Guevara reaffirmed his enduring solidarity with the Cuban Revolution but declared his intention to leave Cuba to fight for the revolutionary cause abroad.
Additionally, he resigned from all his positions in the Cuban government and communist party, and renounced his honorary Cuban citizenship.
In early , Guevara went to Africa to offer his knowledge and experience as a guerrilla to the ongoing conflict in the Congo.
According to Algerian President Ahmed Ben Bella , Guevara thought that Africa was imperialism's weak link and so had enormous revolutionary potential. As an admirer of the late Lumumba, Guevara declared that his "murder should be a lesson for all of us".
Over the course of seven months, Ilanga grew to "admire the hard-working Guevara", who "showed the same respect to black people as he did to whites".
As an additional obstacle, white mercenary troops of the Congo National Army , led by Mike Hoare and supported by anti-Castro Cuban pilots and the CIA, thwarted Guevara's movements from his base camp in the mountains near the village of Fizi on Lake Tanganyika in southeast Congo.
They were able to monitor his communications and so pre-empted his attacks and interdicted his supply lines. Although Guevara tried to conceal his presence in Congo, the United States government knew his location and activities. Guevara's aim was to export the revolution by instructing local anti- Mobutu Simba fighters in Marxist ideology and foco theory strategies of guerrilla warfare. In his Congo Diary book, he cites the incompetence, intransigence and infighting among the Congolese rebels as key reasons for the revolt's failure.
Guevara stated that he had planned to send the wounded back to Cuba and fight in Congo alone until his death, as a revolutionary example. But after being urged by his comrades, and two emissaries sent by Castro, at the last moment he reluctantly agreed to leave Africa. During that day and night, Guevara's forces quietly took down their base camp, burned their huts, and destroyed or threw weapons into Lake Tanganyika that they could not take with them, before crossing the border into Tanzania at night and traveling by land to Dar es Salaam.
In speaking about his experience in Congo months later, Guevara concluded that he left rather than fight to the death because: There is no will to fight. The [rebel] leaders are corrupt. In a word Guevara was reluctant to return to Cuba, because Castro had made public Guevara's "farewell letter"—a letter intended to only be revealed in the case of his death—wherein he severed all ties in order to devote himself to revolution throughout the world.
During this time abroad, Guevara compiled his memoirs of the Congo experience and wrote drafts of two more books, one on philosophy and the other on economics.
As Guevara prepared for Bolivia, he secretly traveled back to Cuba on July 21, to visit Castro, as well as to see his wife and to write a last letter to his five children to be read upon his death, which ended with him instructing them:. Above all, always be capable of feeling deeply any injustice committed against anyone, anywhere in the world.
This is the most beautiful quality in a revolutionary. In late , Guevara's location was still not public knowledge, although representatives of Mozambique's independence movement, the FRELIMO , reported that they met with Guevara in late in Dar es Salaam regarding his offer to aid in their revolutionary project, an offer which they ultimately rejected.
Before he departed for Bolivia, Guevara altered his appearance by shaving off his beard and much of his hair, also dying it grey so that he was unrecognizable as Che Guevara. Three days after his arrival in Bolivia, Guevara left La Paz for the rural south east region of the country to form his guerrilla army.
As a result of Guevara's units' winning several skirmishes against Bolivian troops in the spring and summer of , the Bolivian government began to overestimate the true size of the guerrilla force.
Researchers hypothesize that Guevara's plan for fomenting a revolution in Bolivia failed for an array of reasons:. In addition, Guevara's known preference for confrontation rather than compromise, which had previously surfaced during his guerrilla warfare campaign in Cuba, contributed to his inability to develop successful working relationships with local rebel leaders in Bolivia, just as it had in the Congo.
The end result was that Guevara was unable to attract inhabitants of the local area to join his militia during the eleven months he attempted recruitment.
Many of the inhabitants willingly informed the Bolivian authorities and military about the guerrillas and their movements in the area. Near the end of the Bolivian venture, Guevara wrote in his diary that "the peasants do not give us any help, and they are turning into informers. On October 7, , an informant apprised the Bolivian Special Forces of the location of Guevara's guerrilla encampment in the Yuro ravine.
I am Che Guevara and I am worth more to you alive than dead. Guevara was tied up and taken to a dilapidated mud schoolhouse in the nearby village of La Higuera on the evening of October 8.
For the next half day, Guevara refused to be interrogated by Bolivian officers and only spoke quietly to Bolivian soldiers. One of those Bolivian soldiers, a helicopter pilot named Jaime Nino de Guzman, describes Che as looking "dreadful". According to Guzman, Guevara was shot through the right calf, his hair was matted with dirt, his clothes were shredded, and his feet were covered in rough leather sheaths. Despite his haggard appearance, he recounts that "Che held his head high, looked everyone straight in the eyes and asked only for something to smoke.
The following morning on October 9, Guevara asked to see the school teacher of the village, a year-old woman named Julia Cortez. She later stated that she found Guevara to be an "agreeable looking man with a soft and ironic glance" and that during their conversation she found herself "unable to look him in the eye" because his "gaze was unbearable, piercing, and so tranquil".
A little later, Guevara was asked by one of the Bolivian soldiers guarding him if he was thinking about his own immortality. Shoot, coward! You are only going to kill a man! Guevara was pronounced dead at 1: This included five times in his legs, once in the right shoulder and arm, and once in the chest and throat.
Che Guevara - Biography.pdf
Months earlier, during his last public declaration to the Tricontinental Conference ,  Guevara had written his own epitaph , stating: Put on display, as hundreds of local residents filed past the body, Guevara's corpse was considered by many to represent a "Christ-like" visage, with some even surreptitiously clipping locks of his hair as divine relics. Rembrandt 's The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Johnson from his National Security Advisor Walt Whitman Rostow , called the decision to kill Guevara "stupid" but "understandable from a Bolivian standpoint".
The hands were sent to Buenos Aires for fingerprint identification. They were later sent to Cuba. On October 15 in Havana, Fidel Castro publicly acknowledged that Guevara was dead and proclaimed three days of public mourning throughout Cuba. If we wish to express what we want the men of future generations to be, we must say: Let them be like Che!
If we wish to say how we want our children to be educated, we must say without hesitation: We want them to be educated in Che's spirit! If we want the model of a man, who does not belong to our times but to the future, I say from the depths of my heart that such a model, without a single stain on his conduct, without a single stain on his action, is Che! Also removed when Guevara was captured were his 30,word, hand-written diary, a collection of his personal poetry, and a short story he had authored about a young Communist guerrilla who learns to overcome his fears.
The diary tells how the guerrillas were forced to begin operations prematurely because of discovery by the Bolivian Army, explains Guevara's decision to divide the column into two units that were subsequently unable to re-establish contact, and describes their overall unsuccessful venture.
He suffered from ever-worsening bouts of asthma, and most of his last offensives were carried out in an attempt to obtain medicine. Debray, who had lived with Guevara's band of guerrillas for a short time, said that in his view they were "victims of the forest" and thus "eaten by the jungle". Debray recounts that Guevara and the others had been suffering an "illness" which caused their hands and feet to swell into "mounds of flesh" to the point where you could not discern the fingers on their hands.
Debray described Guevara as "optimistic about the future of Latin America" despite the futile situation, and remarked that Guevara was "resigned to die in the knowledge that his death would be a sort of renaissance", noting that Guevara perceived death "as a promise of rebirth" and "ritual of renewal". To a certain extent, this belief by Guevara of a metaphorical resurrection came true. While pictures of the dead Guevara were being circulated and the circumstances of his death were being debated, Che's legend began to spread.
Demonstrations in protest against his "assassination" occurred throughout the world, and articles, tributes, and poems were written about his life and death. In the view of military historian Erik Durschmied: He was very much alive.
A Revolutionary Life , that Guevara's corpse lay near a Vallegrande airstrip.
The result was a multi-national search for the remains, which lasted more than a year. In July a team of Cuban geologists and Argentine forensic anthropologists discovered the remnants of seven bodies in two mass graves, including one man with amputated hands like Guevara.
Bolivian government officials with the Ministry of Interior later identified the body as Guevara when the excavated teeth "perfectly matched" a plaster mold of Che's teeth made in Cuba prior to his Congolese expedition. The "clincher" then arrived when Argentine forensic anthropologist Alejandro Inchaurregui inspected the inside hidden pocket of a blue jacket dug up next to the handless cadaver and found a small bag of pipe tobacco. Nino de Guzman, the Bolivian helicopter pilot who had given Che a small bag of tobacco, later remarked that he "had serious doubts" at first and "thought the Cubans would just find any old bones and call it Che"; but "after hearing about the tobacco pouch, I have no doubts.
In July , the Bolivian government of Evo Morales unveiled Guevara's formerly-sealed diaries composed in two frayed notebooks, along with a logbook and several black-and-white photographs. At this event Bolivia's vice-minister of culture, Pablo Groux, expressed that there were plans to publish photographs of every handwritten page later in the year.
The discovery of Che's remains metonymically activated a series of interlinked associations—rebel, martyr, rogue figure from a picaresque adventure, savior, renegade, extremist—in which there was no fixed divide among them. The current court of opinion places Che on a continuum that teeters between viewing him as a misguided rebel, a coruscatingly brilliant guerrilla philosopher, a poet-warrior jousting at windmills, a brazen warrior who threw down the gauntlet to the bourgeoisie, the object of fervent paeans to his sainthood, or a mass murderer clothed in the guise of an avenging angel whose every action is imbricated in violence—the archetypal Fanatical Terrorist.
Guevara's life and legacy remain contentious. The perceived contradictions of his ethos at various points in his life have created a complex character of duality, one who was "able to wield the pen and submachine gun with equal skill", while prophesying that "the most important revolutionary ambition was to see man liberated from his alienation ". A secular humanist and sympathetic practitioner of medicine who did not hesitate to shoot his enemies, a celebrated internationalist leader who advocated violence to enforce a utopian philosophy of the collective good , an idealistic intellectual who loved literature but refused to allow dissent, an anti-imperialist Marxist insurgent who was radically willing to forge a poverty-less new world on the apocalyptic ashes of the old one, and finally, an outspoken anti-capitalist whose image has been commoditized.
Che's history continues to be rewritten and re-imagined. As such, various notable individuals have lauded Guevara as a great person; for example, Nelson Mandela referred to him as "an inspiration for every human being who loves freedom",  while Jean-Paul Sartre described him as "not only an intellectual but also the most complete human being of our age". Conversely, Jacobo Machover, an exiled opposition author, dismisses all praise of Guevara and portrays him as a callous executioner.
In a mixed assessment, British historian Hugh Thomas opined that Guevara was a "brave, sincere and determined man who was also obstinate, narrow, and dogmatic". Yet, he still remains a transcendent figure both in specifically political contexts  and as a wide-ranging popular icon of youthful rebellion. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Che Guevara. Rosario , Santa Fe province , Argentina.
La Higuera , Vallegrande , Bolivia. Hilda Gadea m. Aleida March m. Main articles: A motorcycle journey the length of South America awakened him to the injustice of US domination in the hemisphere, and to the suffering colonialism brought to its original inhabitants. Main article: I have yet to find a single credible source pointing to a case where Che executed "an innocent". Those persons executed by Guevara or on his orders were condemned for the usual crimes punishable by death at times of war or in its aftermath: I should add that my research spanned five years, and included anti-Castro Cubans among the Cuban-American exile community in Miami and elsewhere.
Guevara was like a father to me He taught me to think. He taught me the most beautiful thing which is to be human. Theoretical works. Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon.
A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy. Economic determinism Historical materialism Marx's method Philosophy of nature.
Related topics. Communism Criticisms of Marxism Revolutionary socialism Socialism. Marx characterized the psychological or philosophical manifestation of capitalist social relations as alienation and antagonism ; the result of the commodification of labor and the operation of the law of value. For Guevara, the challenge was to replace the individuals' alienation from the productive process , and the antagonism generated by class relations, with integration and solidarity , developing a collective attitude to production and the concept of work as a social duty.
There was no person more feared by the company CIA than Che Guevara because he had the capacity and charisma necessary to direct the struggle against the political repression of the traditional hierarchies in power in the countries of Latin America. Che Guevara Mausoleum. Legacy of Che Guevara and Che Guevara in popular culture. Che Guevara timeline. Bibliography of Che Guevara. A New Society: The Hands of Che Guevara. Retrieved 4 October Collins English Dictionary.
Constenla alleges that she was told by Che's mother, Celia de la Serna, that she was already pregnant when she and Ernesto Guevara Lynch were married and that the date on the birth certificate of their son was forged to make it appear that he was born a month later than the actual date to avoid scandal.
Anderson , pp. And I began to realize at that time that there were things that were almost as important to me as becoming a famous or making a significant contribution to medical science: I wanted to help those people. This inflow takes various forms: Both are stages on the same road leading toward the creation of a new society of justice and plenty. Ever since monopoly capital took over the world, it has kept the greater part of humanity in poverty, dividing all the profits among the group of the most powerful countries.
The standard of living in those countries is based on the extreme poverty of our countries. To raise the living standards of the underdeveloped nations, therefore, we must fight against imperialism. The practice of proletarian internationalism is not only a duty for the peoples struggling for a better future, it is also an inescapable necessity. This could only be achieved by systematic education, acquired by passing through various stages in which collective action is increased. Che recognized that this to be difficult and time-consuming.
In his desire to speed up this process, however, he developed methods of mobilizing people, bringing together their collective and individual interests. Among the most significant of these instruments were moral and material incentives, while deepening consciousness as a way of developing toward socialism.
See Che's speeches: Some people carry both, others only that of their father. In Guevara's case many people of Irish descent will add "Lynch" to emphasize his Irish relations. Others will add "de la Serna" to give respect to Guevara's mother. Ferrer was a longtime childhood friend of Che, and when Guevara passed the last of his 12 exams in , he gave him a copy to prove to Ferrer, who had been telling Guevara that he would never finish, that he had finally completed his studies.
Che Guevara: A Revolutionary Life. New York, New York: Retrieved 25 July Cuba Headlines. The Viking Press. Proceso in Spanish.
Retrieved July 1, Archived from the original on January 4, August 16, ; retrieved February 23, Clandestine Radio and the Rise of Fidel Castro". Patepluma Radio. Johnson School of Public Affairs, , p. The Untold Story. Directed by Estela Bravo. First Run Features. Viewable clip. Retrieved 15 June Che Guevara, Popular but Ineffective. Retrieved Roberts, Martin, ed. Guevara, Also Known as Che. New York: Martin's Griffin.
Stone , New Statesman , October 20, Retrieved November 4, Retrieved 23 May A Graphic Biography. Hill and Wang , Tamayo, Miami Herald , September 19, Ramparts Magazine.
Edward M. Retrieved October 29, October 9, ; retrieved November 7, The National Security Archive. Sometime later, Che handed him a piece of paper; a receipt from the National Bank declaring that Mell had "donated" his gold wristband to Cuba's gold reserve.
Guevara was still wearing his watch, but it now had a leather wristband Anderson , p. The Militant. Retrieved February 10, Ramparts Magazine: Consultado el 13 de octubre de Folha de S. Abrams, Dennis Ernesto Che Guevara. Infobase Publishing. Almudevar, Lola 9 October Retrieved 14 June Anderson, Jon Lee Grove Pr.
Bamford, James Anchor Books. Laurent Kabila".
Che Guevara - salelive.info | Che Guevara | Latin America
Beaubien, Jason All Things Considered , Audio Report. Ben Bella, Ahmed 1 October Le Monde diplomatique. Pike, John 1 April Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, - ". Casey, Michael Che's Afterlife: The Legacy of an Image. Vintage Books. Bonachea, Rolando E. Selected works of Fidel Castro. Cambridge, Mass. MIT Press. Crompton, Samuel The Making of a Revolutionary. Gareth Stevens. Cullather, Nicholas Secret History: The CIA's classified account of its operations in Guatemala, — Palo Alto, California: Stanford University Press.
DePalma, Anthony The man who invented Fidel: Cuba, Castro, and Herbert L. Matthews of The New York Times 1st ed. Public Affairs.
- SARVARTHA CHANDRIKA TELUGU PDF
- ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY RAVIKRISHNAN PDF
- ORGANIC CHEMISTRY BOOK BY MORRISON AND BOYD PDF
- ANAMNESE UND KLINISCHE UNTERSUCHUNG PDF
- BANK OF INDIA CHEQUE DEPOSIT SLIP PDF
- TELUGU COMEDY BOOKS PDF
- BEFORE I WAKE RACHEL VINCENT PDF
- WEIGHT WATCHERS POINTS PLUS BOOK
- VIVO IPL 2016 SCHEDULE TIME TABLE PDF
- EBOOK BRIDGET JONES DIARY
- BUKU PSIKOLOGI GRATIS PDF
- CLAIMED EVANGELINE ANDERSON EPUB