ALEXANDER THE GREAT BIOGRAPHY PDF
the Achaemenid World and the Empire of Alexander the Great at the Collège de . text and its reception, a biography of Eratosthenes, and a comprehensive. Until recently, popular biographers and most scholars viewed Alexander the Great as a genius with a plan, a romantic figure pursuing his vision of a united worl. mankind, has been written in a great variety of ways ALEXANDER THE GREAT died when he was Notwithstanding the briefness of Alexander's career.
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It being my purpose to write the lives of Alexander the king, and of Caesar, by Pompey was destroyed, the multitude of their great actions affords so large a. differ as much as biography, annals, and history-is, biography which lead to a knowledge of man. . be the same with tbe historian of Alexander the Great. Alexander the Great ( BC – BC) was perhaps the greatest military commander of As a young child he was tutored by the great philosopher, Aristotle.
During his leadership, from to B. He also became the king of Persia, Babylon and Asia, and created Macedonian colonies in the region. The young prince and his sister were raised in Pella's royal court. Growing up, the dark-eyed and curly-headed Alexander hardly ever saw his father, who spent most of his time engaged in military campaigns and extra-marital affairs. Although Olympia served as a powerful role model for the boy, Alexander grew to resent his father's absence and philandering.
Fearing a revolt among the other city-states, Alexander leapt into action, marching his massive army—consisting of 3, cavalry and 30, infantry—southward all the way to the tip of the Greek peninsula. Meanwhile, Alexander's general, Parmenion, had already made his way to Asia Minor. Alexander and his forces arrived in Thebes so quickly that the city-state didn't have a chance to pull together allies for its defense.
Three days after his arrival, Alexander led the massacre of Thebes.
It was Alexander's hope that the destruction of Thebes would serve as a warning to city-states contemplating revolt. His intimidation tactic proved effective; the other Greek city-states, including Athens, chose to pledge their alliance to the Macedonian Empire or opted to remain neutral.
In , Alexander embarked on his Asiatic expedition, arriving in Troy that spring. By fall, Alexander and his army had made it across the southern coast of Asia Minor to Gordium, where they took the winter to rest. In the summer of , the troops of Alexander and Darius once again went head to head in battle at Issus.
Although Alexander's army was outnumbered, he used his flair for military strategy to create formations that defeated the Persians again and caused Darius to flee.
In November of , Alexander declared himself the king of Persia after capturing Darius and making him a fugitive. Next up on Alexander's agenda was his campaign to conquer Egypt. After besieging Gaza on his way to Egypt, Alexander easily achieved his conquest; Egypt fell without resistance. In , he created the city of Alexandria, designed as a hub for Greek culture and commerce.
Alexander the Great - Facts, Life & Death - Biography
Later that year, Alexander defeated the Persians at the Battle of Gaugamela. Alexander's next conquest was eastern Iran, where he created Macedonian colonies and in seized the fortress in Ariamazes. After capturing Prince Oxyartes, Alexander married the prince's daughter, Rhoxana. In , Alexander defeated King Porus' armies in northern India.
Finding himself impressed by Porus, Alexander reinstated him as king and won his loyalty and forgiveness. Alexander forged eastward to the Ganges but headed back when his armies refused to advance any farther.
On their way back along the Indus, Alexander was wounded by Malli warriors. In , after Alexander had recovered, he and his army headed north along the rugged Persian Gulf, where many fell prey to illness, injury and death.
In February , Alexander at last reached the city of Susa. Desperate to retain his leadership and recruit more soldiers, he tried to connect Persian nobles to Macedonians in order to create a ruling class. To this end, at Susa he commanded that a large number of Macedonians marry Persian princesses.
Alexander the Great
After Alexander managed to recruit tens of thousands of Persian soldiers into his army, he dismissed many of his existing Macedonian soldiers. This enraged the soldiers, who spoke critically of Alexander's new troops and condemned him for adopting Persian customs and manners.
Alexander appeased the Macedonian soldiers by killing 13 Persian military leaders. The Thanksgiving Feast at Susa, which had been geared towards solidifying the bond between Persians and Macedonians, shaped up to be quite the opposite. He was just 32 years old. Rhoxana gave birth to his son a few months later. After Alexander died, his empire collapsed and the nations within it battled for power.
Over time, the cultures of Greece and the Orient synthesized and thrived as a side effect of Alexander's empire, becoming part of his legacy and spreading the spirit of Panhellenism. We strive for accuracy and fairness. If you see something that doesn't look right, contact us! Sign up for the Biography newsletter to receive stories about the people who shaped our world and the stories that shaped their lives.
The son of Napoleon Bonaparte, who named him as his successor, Napoleon II never actually ruled France, but was considered the titular Emperor. Charles II was the monarch of England, Scotland and Ireland during much of the latter half of the 17th century, marking the Restoration era. After rejecting another peace offer from Darius, Alexander set out for Egypt. He was sidelined at Gaza, however, and forced to endure another lengthy siege.
After several weeks, he took the town and entered Egypt where he established the city that still bears his name: Alexander traveled to the desert to consult the oracle of Ammon, a god of supposed good counsel.
Legends abound about what transpired at the oracle, but Alexander kept mum about the experience. Still, the visit furthered speculation Alexander was a deity. Following fierce fighting and heavy losses on both sides, Darius fled and was assassinated by his own troops. Finally rid of Darius, Alexander proclaimed himself King of Persia. With Bessus out of the way, Alexander had full control of Persia. To gain credibility with the Persians, Alexander took on many Persian customs.
He began dressing like a Persian and adopted the practice of proskynesis, a Persian court custom that involved bowing down and kissing the hand of others, depending on their rank. The Macedonians were less than thrilled with the changes in Alexander and his attempt to be viewed as a deity. They refused to practice proskynesis and some plotted his death. Increasingly paranoid, Alexander ordered the death of one of his most esteemed generals, Parmerio, in B.
Pushed too far, Alexander killed Cleitus with a spear, a spontaneous act of violence that anguished him. Some historians believe Alexander killed his general in a fit of drunkenness—a persistent problem that plagued him through much of his life. Alexander struggled to capture Sogdia, a region of the Persian Empire that remained loyal to Bessus.
Supposedly, one of those on the rock was a girl named Roxane. As the story goes, Alexander fell in love with Roxane on sight. He married her despite her Sogdian heritage and she joined him on his journey.
Some tribes surrendered peacefully; others did not. Even so, after a fierce battle in a raging thunderstorm, Porus was defeated. One event took place at Hydaspes which devastated Alexander: Alexander wanted to press on and attempt to conquer all of India, but his war-weary soldiers refused, and his officers convinced him to return to Persia.
So Alexander led his troops down the Indus River and was severely wounded during a battle with the Malli. After recovering, he divided his troops, sending half back to Persia and half to Gedrosia, a desolate area west of the Indus River. In early B. Wanting to unite the Persians and Macedonians and create a new race loyal only to him, he ordered many of his officers to marry Persian princesses at a mass wedding; he also took two more wives for himself.
But after Alexander took a firm stand and replaced Macedonian officers and troops with Persians, his army backed down. To further diffuse the situation, Alexander returned their titles and hosted a huge reconciliation banquet. By B. Thanks to his insatiable urge for world supremacy, he started plans to conquer Arabia.
After surviving battle after fierce battle, Alexander the Great died in June B. Some historians say Alexander died of malaria or other natural causes; others believe he was poisoned. Either way, he never named a successor. Nonetheless, many conquered lands retained the Greek influence Alexander introduced—some cities he founded remain important cultural centers even today—and Alexander the Great is revered as one of the most powerful and influential leaders the ancient world ever produced.
Alexander the Great. Ancient History Encyclopedia.
Alexander the Great of Macedon Biography. Alexander of Macedonia. San Jose State University.
The Battle of Issus. Fordham University. We strive for accuracy and fairness. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present.
Alexander the Great, the young Macedonian military genius who forged an empire stretching from the eastern Mediterranean to India, dies in Babylon, in present-day Iraq, at the age of Born in the British West Indies, he arrived in the colonies as a teenager, and quickly embarked on a remarkable He was taught by Aristotle but had famous run-ins with other philosophers. A career politician, he served in both houses of the Georgia legislature before winning a seat in the U.
House of Representatives in Alexander Graham Bell is best known for his invention of the telephone, for which he received his first patent in Despite the hundreds of lawsuits that would challenge his claim to the invention, none would prove successful.
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