RESEARCH METHODS IN LANGUAGE LEARNING DAVID NUNAN PDF
Cambridge University Press. - Research Methods in Language Learning. David Nunan. Excerpt. More information. Cambridge Language Teaching Library: Research Methods in Language Learning by David Nunan, , available at Book Depository with free. salelive.info: Research Methods in Language Learning (Cambridge Language Teaching Library) (): David Nunan: Books.
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salelive.info!IDGE L A N G U A G E T E A C H I N G LIBRARY A series ot aurhoritative books on subjecrs of central importance for all language reachers Research. fluency and accuracy by Christopher Brumfit. The Context of LanguageTeaching by Jack C. Richards. Research Methods in. Language Learning. David Nunan. Research methixis in language learning / David Nunan. p. cm. Contents Preface xi 1 < An introduction to research methods and traditions 1.
Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Yeferson Galeano. Teaching and Learning Languages by Earl W. Richards and Theodore S. Additional statistical tools 37 r Types of experiments 40 T h e psychometric study:
Ethnography 4. Case study 5. Classroom observation and research 6. Introspective methods 7. Elicitation techniques 8. Interaction analysis 9. Program evaluation Doing research.
Notes Includes bibliographical references p.
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Teaching and Learning Languages by Earl W. Richards and Theodore S. Additional statistical tools 37 r Types of experiments 40 T h e psychometric study: The first of these is the strengthening of a research orientation t o language learning and teaching. Within the language teaching literature there are nulnerous works con- mining, at worst, wish lists for teacher action and, at best, powerful rhetorical prescriptions for practice. In both cases, the precepts tend to be couched in the form of received wisdom - in other words, exhortations for one line of actipn rather than another are argued logico-deductively rather thrin on the basis of empirical evidence about what teachers nnd learners actually do, inside and outside the classroom, as they teach, learn, and use language.
Over the last ten years, this picture has begun to change, the change itself prompted, a t least in part, by practitioners who have grown tired of the swings and roundabouts of pedagogic fashion. While position papers and log- ico-deductive argumentation have not disappeared from the scene and I ;lm not suggesting for a moment that they should , they are counterbalanced by empirical approaches t o inquiry.
I believe that these d;iys, when confronted by pedagogical questions and problems, rese;ircliers and teachcrs are nlorc likely than was the case ten o r fifteen years ago t o seek relevant data, either through their own research, or through the research of others. Research activ- ity has increased t o the point where those who favour logico-deductive solu- tions t o pedagogic problems nre beginning t o argue that there is too 1iiuc11 research.
If teachers are t o benefit from the research of others, and if they are to con-. A major function of this book, in addition t o providing a contemporary account of the 'what' and the 'how' of research, is to help nonresearchers develop the critical, analytical skills which will enable them to read and evaluate research reports in an informed and knowledgeable way.
According to this view, the function of research is to uncover I An introduction to research methods and thcsc truths. The second view is that truth is a negotiable commodity contin- traditions gent upon the historical context within which phenomena are observed and interpreted.
Research Methods in Language Learning
Further, rcsearch 'standards are subject to change in the light of practice [which] would seem to indicate that the search for a substantive uni- versal, ahistorical methodology is futile' Cha1mers While I shall strive to provide a balanced introduction to these alternative traditions, 1 must declare myself at the outset for the second.
Accordingly, in the book I shall urge the reader to exercise caution in applying research out- Scientists should not be ashamed to admit.. It is intended as an introduction ners, rather than being consumers of other people's research, should adopt a to research methods in applied linguistics, and does not assume specialist research oricntation to their own classroomsi There is evidence that the knowledge of the field. It is written in order to help you to develop a range teacher-researchcr movement is alive and well and gathering strength.
How- of skills, but more particularly to discussand critique a wide rangeof research ever, if the momentum which has gathered is not to falter, and if the teacher- methods, including formal experiments and quasi-experiments; elicitation rcscarcher movcrnent is not to become yet another fad, then significant num- instruments; interviews and questionnaires; observation instruments and bers of tcachcrs, graduate studcnts, and others will need skills in planning, schedules; introspective methods, including diaries, logs, journals, protocol implcmcnting, and evaluating rcsearch.
Accordingly, a second aim of this analysis, and stimulated recall; interaction and transcript analysis; ethnog- book is to assist the reader to develop relevant research skills. At the end of raphy and case studies. Having read the book, you should have a detailed thc book, rcaders should be able to formulate realistic research questions, appreciation of the basic principles of research design, and you should be able adopt appropriate procedures for collecting and analysing data, and present to rcad and critique publishedstudies in applied linguistics.
In relation to your the fruits of their rcsearch in a form accessible to others. The chapter sets the scene for the rest of the contributions which they have made. One person who deserves explicit the book, and highlights the central themes underpinning the book. This acknowlcdgrnent is Ceoff Brindley, who provided many useful references and chapter deals with the following questions: Thanks are also due to the anonymous reviewers, whose thoughtful and detailed comments were - What is the difference between quantitative and qualitative research?
Finally, grateful thanks go to Ellen Shaw from Cam- - What do we mean by 'the status of knowledge', and why is this of partic- ,, hridgc University Prcss, who provided criticism and encouragement in appro- ular significance to an understanding of research traditions? Thanks also to Suzette Andri, and I - What is meant by the terms reliability and validity, and why are they con- cspccially to S;intly Cmham, who is quite simply the best editor any author sidered important in research?
Ncccllcss to say, such shortcomings as remain are mine alone. Research traditions in applied linguistics 7 he very term research is a pejorative one to many practitioners, conjuring up images of white-coated scientists plying their arcane trade in laboratories filled with mysterious equipment.
The n1i1iini: A short definition of key tenns pri11tc. It has two components: The process is Traditionally, writers on research traditions h;ive madc n biniiry distinc- about an area of inquiry and how it is pursued.
I cic11iirdt ;IIILI - a process which involves a defining a problem, b stating an objective, and Ctmk cited in Chaudron , for example, argue that it1 prncticiil tcrliis, c formulating an hypothesis.
It involves gathering information, clrlssifi- qualitative and quanrit;itivc research: Those who draw a distinction sug- understanding of the chosen interest area. Ultimately, this investigation gest that quantitative research is obtrusive and controlled, objective, gcner- becomes accessible to the 'public'. In Research is carried out in order to: That is, to satisfy the individual's quest but investigations seek to determine language gains from different mctliorls ;ind also to improve community welfare.
These include: While Chaudron's aim of attempting uncover, satisfy inquiry, solution. The different research paradigms Quantitative research Advocates use of qualitative methods Advocates use of quantitative methods resulting from mixing and matching these variables are set out in Figure 1.
Concerned with understanding human Seeks facts or causes of social It should be pointed out that, while all of these various 'hybrid' forms are behaviour from the actor's own phenomena without regard to the theoretically possible, some are of extremely unlikely occurrence. For exam- frame of reference subjective states of the individuals ple, it would be unusual for a researcher t o g o to the trouble of setting Naturalistic and uncontrolled Obtrusive and controlled measurement up a formal experiment yielding quantitative data which are analysed observation Subjective Objective interpretively.
Close to the data: Before turning t o a discussion of this issue, however, I should like Process-oriented Outcome-oriented to outline a model developed by van Lier ; for characterising Valid: I Terttrs cotrrrrrorrly associated ruith quantitative arrd qrtalitative to which the researcher intervenes in the environment. In b c t classroom in action would be placed at the other end of the continuum.
The thcsc mcthods can be and havc bccn utiliscd by rescarchers working in both other parameter places research according t o the degree to which the tlic psychonictric and ethnogmphic traditions. For example, ethnographers researcher prespecifies the phenomena t o be investigated. Grotjahn provides an insightful analysis of research traditions i81 The intersection of these t w o parameters creates four 'semantic spaccs': For example, in an investigation into ;iri;ilysis concluctccl on tlic data whethcr statistical or interpretive.
Mixing the e,ffect of cultural knowledge on reading comprehension, the investigator. In such an experiment, the focus is on a single variable cultural of that data. The sccond, or 'analytical-nomological' paradigm, is one in background which is controlled through the reading texts administered to ivliich tlic Jnta are collcctcd through an experiment, and yields quantitative the subjects.
In addition to these 'pure" The measuring spacc encloses those rescarch methods involving a high tornis. For cx: Armed with a taxonomy of teacher questions, the resr: After a while it may be possible to pinpoint the problem 3 statistical analysis so precisely that a controlled environment can be created in order t o conduct Paradigm 6: The researcher observes and records what happens Paradigm 7: While some form of quantification 3 interpretive analysis or measurement may be used, it isseen as no more than one tool among many, and not inherently superior to any other way of analysing data.
An exaliiple Paradigm 8: I find van Lier's model of types of research a useful one, although, as van Figure 1. In this instance, the rcscarch will have moved from the 'watching'space t o the 'controlling'space. A case statistical Regardless of the fact that it is a simplification, it does serve to highlight two study of the most important questions researchers must confront at the beginning I of tlicir rcscarch, namely: Experimental under invcstigation?
In his frame- characteristics.
Nor- design of the study, for guarding against the various threats t o the internal riially, this is a necessary prerequisite to primary research, which 'differs from and external validity of the study, and for the selection 2nd application of sccondnry research in that it is derived from the primary sources of infor- statistical procedures. A study should also exhibit logic in the step-by-step mation e. Tangible research is based on the collection of data from sccondnry sources e.
Hcncc, it has the advantage of being closer t o the primary in that-they must be qrrantifiable, that is, each datum must be a number that sourcc of infornintion. Primary research is subdivided into case studies and represents some well-defined quantity, rank, or category' p. Rcplicabrlity st;itistic;iI studics. In order for a reader to eval- ally over nn extended period of time. Statistical studies, on the other hand, uate the replicability of a!
In addition, statistical analyses are used in this approach t o estimate present, sometimes on a daily basis.
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